Thursday, April 4, 2019
Construction Techniques for Bridges
Construction Techniques for nosepiecesStructure of reportAn across-the-board reveal of this report was dedicated to the books review. Though actually the close interesting part is the unity which concerns to the results of the vulnerability of couplet circuit of the good example tuition, it is not admissible to neglect all the superior general thinkations based on an extensively rese slueway in technical foul text, through which was mathematical to determine the special(prenominal) social expression, the method and the phases of bend, the compositors slip of synopsis to be carried out and in which demeanor the results feel to be indicate. Indeed close tutelage is needed in interpreting the results out-of-pocket to limitations of the specific case chthonic consideration and at the same date because of the need to generalize the specific results for use on a larger scale of projects.In the literature review ingredient of the report a general study virtually link up has been developed. This has been through with(p) investigating the history, the evolution, as well as the technologies and trends of bridge devise, with particular attention to late developments in California. Construction techniques put one across also been analyzed in more details referring to many important projects, based on international literature, scientific journals and technical books.Then the earthquake voice was cover.In the section about autographs of practice an overview of the most important constructions has been make and few tables of concerned have been attached to justify the choices made in the case study. compositors case of abbreviation of preceding(prenominal) papersThe second part, elaborated with the stand out of the packet SAP2000 BRIDGE Modeler, follows the development of the project of a common bridge in California according to the local and currents codes of practice.Literature reviewAn extensive literature review was conducted to understand which is the conjure of the research and the interest of the codes in apprised performance behavior of the connect during phases of manifestation. tide oversAmong all the engineering sciences, bridge engineering is one of the most complex because involves in itself a dress circle of disciplines, from technical to aesthetic, from environmental to social, from scotch to political aspects. Without any doubt the technical and the economic factors ar those that strongly influence engineers choices in constructing a bridge, nevertheless they do not cover all the initiation process. development Troitsky words Planning and designing tie is part art and part compromise (Chen, Lian Duan, 1999).For understanding recent trends in bridge design and construction it is of lofty greatness to consider the development that bridge engineering has undergone during centuries. archives illustrates that social and economical changes in a nation have been reflected on bridge engi neering development. At contrary historical moments, various fictional characters of link up have been build for many purposes with the vernal technologies at distributively time. From the nineteenth century, collectable to the big industrial growth, bridges have been built basically as part of the transportation system. During the 20th century, bridge engineering has been characterized by big changes in the structural solutions and methods of constructions because of the diffusion of the reinforced concrete. The designers had final examinationly a large fortuity of choices between materials, methods of constructions and technologies of depth psychology. This led to the actual scenario where multiple type of bridges be in operation highlighting the wide creativeness of bridge engineers.Designing a bridge, the main important parameters to take back in account in choosing the best solution argon location, cut across, material, type of base of operations, turning away o f the bridge, type of superstructure, type of supports, method of construction. Regarding materials, nowdays timber is use only for pro tempore bridges, then for ordinary bridges the choice is between reinforced concrete and poise. Depending on the span of the structure one material is to be best-loved to the otherwise. For spans between 65ft and 330ft reinforced concrete gives the best compromise, for spans greater than 330 ft steel is recommended. The span influences also the system of the bridge for small and medium spans a beam bridge is commonly used, for spans retentiveer than 160 ft an arch system could be adviced and a suspended bridge keister be the solution for very long span bridges. These ar only indication, and every(prenominal) sensation case has to be evalued considering limitations due to location, codes, monetary value and typical bridge of the atomic number 18a. It is a good rule of practice to consider typical projects recent designed in the area in which there is the purpose of confine a new bridge structure, if the medium-span is the one of interest. (Chen, Lian Duan, 1999).Structural TypesThis paragraph intends to domiciliate a discover of the several commonly used types of bridges, highlighting the differences for geometry, analysis, economy. This list is not to be intended complete, as other type of bridges may be design, in which case, specific deep studies have to be done in order to analyse the particular solution.According to Raina it is viable to categorise bridges in six divers(prenominal) types of superstructure regarding the material which is made of.Materials commonly used for building the superstructure of permanent bridges are reenforce ConcretePrestressed ConcreteMasonrySteelMix of steel and reinforced concrete or mix of reinforced concrete and prestressed concreteSpecial superstructures with cablesFor each material there are possibilities of different kinds of sections.1. Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fuck be open span or continuous span equilibrise give the bouncetilever, arch or frame, tipically utilized for short span bridges. Some move may be precast.Solid Slab employ for spans between 5 and 14 metersSlab and girder (T-beam bridges) utilise for spans between 14 and 25 metersHollow box girder Used for spans between 25 and 70 meters Characterized by a high torsional resistance, is adapted for curved paths.2. Prestressed Concrete Superstructures can be simple, balanced or thaw cantilever, or continuous span. It is possible to have divided cast in situ or precast solutions. Prestressed Concrete superstructures cover medium spans.Hollow slab Used for spans between 10 and 25 metersSlab and girder (Girder bridges)Hollow box girder3. Masonry superstructures have been associated with arch bridges in the past centuries.This type of bridges is not of pertinent importance for this study, which is relative to new bridges under construction.4. Steel Superstructure typically consists in a steel truss deck and covers long spans.5. building complex superstructures can have the following deck typeslongitudinal plate girder and transverse beam girder with concrete slablongitudinal and transverse beam girder with concrete slabLongitudinal box girder with concrete slabThe deck arrangement can be simple span or continuous span, or arch and covers medium and long spans.5. Special superstructureCable stayed bridgesSuspended bridgesThese structures are of relatively new conception and in run short century have been used for long span solutions.(V.K.Raina, 1994).New trendsAccording to Caltrans informations, in California the absolute majority of bridges have been built with the cast-in-place (CIP) technique (See also fig.x?). This method of construction provides a good compromise between bridge cost and seismal performance of the structure. Commonly CIP system requires big run in design and preparation at the aim often needs framework to support and long ti me for casting and finishing. An ever-increasing requests of new way of transportation has been registered due to the rapid growth of population and the high economic standards, added to the aging of infrastructures and the conception of new unstable design criteria. The transportation planners are searching for new solutions that can accelerate highway and bridge construction in selection to the traditional ones. Caltrans engineers are looking at precasting to try to achieve the Accelerating couplet Construction (ABC) they are developing research and studies to understand the effectiveness of precast solutions in reducing construction time on send and delays in the decongestion of traffic. In the beginning, Caltrans was concerned about the behavior of the precast structures in high seismal zones, because there was not a long tradition in the earthquake prone areas. Precasting has been usually considered having too many transfers of connection which are weaknesses for seisma l performance capabilities. The University of California-San Diego conducted tests on the seismic behavior of precast segmental bridge and the results showed that this kind of method gives desirable performances also for high seismic zones. (Aspire, Spring 2007) In the last 3 long time few projects have been completed successfully in California with prefabricated elements, and even if they costed 30% more than it they were built with traditional CIP method, the reduced time-on-site guarantees a overall gain.Economic analysis and Quantity trendsIn the figure above is graphically shown the trend of the Bridge Construction Cost Index in California over the last 45 years. It is evident how the index cost has been increasing over the decades, although sometimes decrements have been registered. This is possibly due to periods of regressions in the economy of the State or due to improvements in various technical aspects of construction and consequently in the adoption of new, cheaper and b etter designed solutions.It is very difficult to forecast the cost of bridge engineering works, as they are related to a serve up of uncertainty parameters like economic situation, inflation, local environment. By the way an effort in this sense has been done to have some costs of unstable CodesWHICH SEISMIC CODEAASHTO Standards Specifications give provisions of minimum requirements for conventional bridges with span not exceeding 300ft. There are some general indications about cable-stayed bridges, suspended bridges, arch bridges but these are not fully covered.The fundamental principles on which the Standards are based on are the following pointsStructural performance should be ensured without significant damage ( tractile range) under small and moderate earthquakesDesign has to be carried out applying realistic state motion quickeningsLarge earthquake should not cause collapseThe Codes are valid for all United States and the seismic risk varies a skunk through the Country. R eading the acceleration contours on the hazard map (fig.20?) the acceleration coefficient A, relative to the place of interest, is determined dividing by 100 the value read the map is based on a return period of 475 years for events with 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years. Four Seismic operation Categories (SPC) from A to D (AASHTO SDC) or from 1 to 4 (AASHTO LRFD) are define (fig.20?) on the base of the Acceleration Coefficient (A) and twain Importance Classification (IC) parameters categorize every bridge as Essential (I) or Critical (II) regarding its importance (fig. 22?). To take into account the soil conditions a Site Coefficient (S) has to be used in the design process for all type of foundation for approximates the effect of the soil modification on the structural behavior (fig.22?). S coefficient varies from 1 to 2 for soils from rock to soft clays or silts. For those cases in which is not possible to determine the characterization of the site, a soil Type II with S=1.2 should be assigned. With this specifications the elastic seismic response coefficient Csm has to be appear for the Tm period of vibration of the structure that corresponds to the mth mode. Csm is defined by the Code (220.127.116.11 AASHTO LRFD) as a escape of A, S and Tm. Seismic design forces for bum and connections have to be determined dividing the elastic forces by the appropriate resolution Modification Factor given for each Importance Category of bridge. To consider the variability of the directions in which the earthquake may occur, two combinations of orthogonal seismic forces have to be apply to the superstructure of the bridge with the proportion of 100% and 30% in each direction. The Code (AASHTO LRFD) defines a vertical support as a tugboat if the ratio of the clear high to the maximum ratio of the cross section is not less than 2.5. If the ratio is less than 2.5, the requirements for piers have to be satisfied. A pier can be analysed as a pier in its strong direc tion and as a column in the weak one. epitome regularityThe object of seismic design is to define forces which structures are subject to, calculate elastic and inelastic deformations, study the ductile behavior of the structure and verify the ability of the single elements to resist. disparate methods of analysis were found in the literature review with different assumptions and for different scopes. Briefly it go outing be given a list of the methods covered by the codes.Analytical MethodsESA Equivalent smooth AnalysisEDA elastic band energising AnalysisISA Inelastic Static AnalysisStructural governance world(prenominal) AnalysisStand-Alone Local AnalysisTransverse Stand-Alone AnalysisLongitudinal Stand-Alone analysisSimplified AnalysisESA Equivalent Static Analysis can be used to estimate the displacement demands of those structure with uniform stiffness, responding by the predominant mode of vibration, where dynamic analysis would not give significantly different r esults. (Cetinkaya, Nakamura,Takahashi,2005)EDA Elastic Dynamic Analysis can be used to estimate the displacement demands of those structures where ESA does not give a good response of the dynamic behavior. The effect of applying design spectral acceleration likely results in stresses exceeding the li adjacent range. This is due to the contribution of the soil, amenable in the structural elements, expansion of the joints.According to recent Caltrans specifications (Caltrans SDC (v.1.5)) an Ordinary Bridge can be analyzed either with Equivalent Static Method or Linear Elastic Dynamic Method for estimating the displacement demands. For turn up the displacement capacity of the elements a non one-dimensional analysis is required to take into account the ductility of the structure.Pushover analysisCase studyThe case study has been elect after evaluating the trends in bridge construction in California in the last ten years. The trend shows that the majority of bridges designed in rece nt past are of medium span, built with the cast in place technique. A very high persona of these are prestressed box girder built by segments with the balanced cantilever hard-on method. Since the interest of this study is aimed at predicting the likely behavior of the bridges that will be probably built in the next future in California, the choice was made in that direction. PrecastNEW TRENDSThe main objective of this study is to study the vulnerability of the bridge under the seismic burden if the earthquake is going to occur during the construction phases. Before doing this, however, is fundamental to be sure that the bridge (case of study), after work completion and during life time under live loadings, will respond satisfying all pencil eraser criteria required by the current local codes.We are talking about small earthquakes if the performance behavior of the structure has to stay in the elastic range, because this is a principle that governs the bridge design according t o the codes of practice.Structural SystemThe solution adopted consists in a prestressed cast on site concrete box girder constructed with the segmental balanced cantilever method, with a motley system of prestressing cables in post-tension.Stages of ConstructionOne of the most significant aspect of the bridge under consideration, that affects the all the design phases, is the definition of the bridge behavior during construction in the sequential progression of structural configurations. Therefore, issues relating to structural analysis during construction and those due to the actions in the final phase, have been examined in depth. theoretical accountThe modeling has been conductedThe capacity demand of vertical supports is a complex function of a lot of variables includingGround motion characteristicRequired design levelPeriod of vibration of the structureMaterial behaviorElastic damping coefficientSoil condition and foundation typeThe geology of the ground and the morphology of the site play a key role in the design form and govern the choices to be made in terms of foundations, maximum span length and construction type.A subsurface investigation in the neck of the woods of piles and abutments is necessary to identify a suitable foundation type. The economic aspect is also affected because, depending on the geological situation, in case of high risk of liquefaction or slope stability the cost of foundations can vary greatly and reach very high costs in proportion to the total cost of the structure. In the case study interpreted into consideration, there was no possibility to determine the required type of the foundations due to the lack in knowledge of the geology of the soil.The feasible foundation options that could be proposed are many and, depending on the particular one chosen, they could significantly change the demeanor of the structure under seismic load. It was therefore preferred to leave the type of foundations as undefined and study the beha viour of the superstructure (piers and abutments) by assigning a good degree of restraint at the base of the substructure. Basically in the analysis model the base of the substructure has been fully restrained neglecting the possibility of deformation. This decision is based on the assumption that a fully icy restraint (as the one simulated/assigned in the analysis model) will never occur in reality, regardless the type of foundation chosen this means that the reactions at the base obtained from the model will be high than the ones expected in reality, guarantying a conservative approach of the study. On the other hand the scope of this study is not the full design of the bridge, but the variation of the seismic vulnerability during the construction process, hence the previous assumptions, immutable during the study of all construction stages, do not affect the final results. This means that making sure that the limitations deriving from these assumptions are taken into considera tion, it has been possible to interpret the results appropriately as described in the following paragraphs.Analysis procedureThe project of the bridge should be feasible in the near future at the location indicated and therefore the completed structure has to be able to withstand to all the loads defined by the codes, including seismic loads. Therefore, the first phase of this study involved the design of the bridge sections by analyzing bending, shear and torsion in superstructure and substructure.Usually, while conducting a push-over analysis, the structure is pushed process collapse is reached. This means that the structure would be allowed to pass the linear state and undergo to the non-linear one with the progressive formation of moldable hinges. Plastic hinges are a exemplification of cracking and initial damages in the structure. wherever they occur, is not admissible to have cracks in the structure during construction of the bridge. For this cause the capacity of the pie rs to resist to seismic loads during construction has been evaluated through linear ginger nut analysis. Therefore the structure behavior has always been considered linear and when plastic hinges started occurring, which means that the structure was dissipating energy while cracking, the pushover has been stopped because the piers were considered damaged.Since the structure was reproduced with a 3-dimensional model, two different pushover analysis were carried on one in the longitudinal direction and one in the transverse direction. The two chosen directions correspond to the first and the second mode of vibration of the bridge. Longitudinal pushover analysis was performed applying a slowly increasing seismic load on the superstructure of the bridge in the same direction of the span, and transverse pushover analysis similarly in the perpendicular direction.Summary and ConclusionThe sermon in this study was carried out looking at a single bridge and making some simplifications (assu mptions of fixity supports, two orthogonal directions of seismic forces, no admissible damage, linear behavior) to limit the number of variables that could affect the analysis. The previous push-over results refer to different models for the different construction phases of the same bridge. It would be insecure coming to the conclusion that these results are representative of all bridge behaviors. surely this study can be considered a good starting point for further investigation to be carried out on bridges with different characteristics for compare and group them in classes with analogue behavior to reach a generals conclusions about seismic vulnerability during construction.