Thursday, November 28, 2019
The goal in answering this kind of question is to analyze rather than summarize an achievement. This advice is particularly true if youre discussing an accomplishment that is listed elsewhere on the application. Your readers want to gain insight into your characterÃ¢â¬ânot read a factual summary of what occurred.Here are some guiding principles to use in constructing your answer:Choose something thats meaningful to you.Ã Some applicants feel obligated to choose the most objectively impressive accomplishments. You should write about something that has personal significance, even if you werent formally recognized for it. What matters is that you write passionately and insightfully about your subject. Unless otherwise specified, you should feel free to draw on academic, personal, or professional successes.Focus on details about the process.Ã Show the reader through concrete details how you achieved what you did. If you want to discuss a grade you earned in a particularly challeng ing class, show us how you mastered the material. For example, describe creative strategies you used; dont rely on clichÃ ©s like I succeeded through hard work.Build tension. Describe obstacles and how you overcame them.Ã Note initial difficulties or intermediate failures, and show how you recovered. By adding a sense of drama to your story, you not only keep the reader interested, but you also make the accomplishment seem that much more significant.Evaluate the significance of the accomplishment.Ã Again, the goal here is to add insight beyond what the reader knows from the straightforward facts. For example, you can comment on how the accomplishment represents an aspect of your character, or describe how it fits within your background of successes and failures. Dont get carried away, however, and try to draw overly grand lessons. You might discuss external consequences of your actions to convey their magnitude, but ultimately you should stay focused on your personal response.D ont boast or be overly modest.Ã This is a hard balance to strike, but if you stay focused on the details of your story, then you shouldnt have a problem. Use the details to convey the magnitude of your accomplishment; you should be able to do so sincerely without having to promote yourself. For example, if you can show through illustrative evidence how you influenced the course of someones life, you wont have to make a presumptuous statement about, for example, having a profound impact on the life of another.This applicantÃ discusses three accomplishments. The first is a professional achievement with specific details both about the difficulties he encountered and the contributions he made. His second accomplishment comes from his involvement in his community. Note that he makes the following unnecessary statement: This experience was remarkable because it afforded me the privilege of making a positive difference in the lives of others. Although this is certainly true, the writer would be better off showing the difference he has made. Nevertheless, the overall account is still strong, because he does return to focus on specific duties he had and results for which he was responsible.His final accomplishment falls under a personal achievement. Note that he is able to avoid sounding boastful by acknowledging but downplaying praise: My act was heralded in the newspapers and recognized by a citation from the highway patrol and the county in which the event occurred, but this hardly equaled the feeling I received from having saved this boys life. Few of us have been involved in saving another persons life, but this story provides a strong model of engaging dramatic narration and effective use of detail. The writer does not need to spend many words evaluating the significance of his story, because the details have already revealed so much to the reader about his character.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Forensic speaker identification Essays Forensic speaker identification Essay Forensic speaker identification Essay Introduction Forensic talker designation is the application of scientific discipline to work out the jobs related to designation of the unknown talker in condemnable probe. A voice is much more than merely a twine of words. Although grounds from DNA grabs the headlines, but the fact is that DNA ca nt speak. It ca nt be recorded planning, transporting out or squealing to a crime1. The voice of a individual can be successfully used as a biometric characteristic as it is good accepted by the users and can be easy recorded utilizing mikes and hardware of low costs2. It can supply an option, more unafraid agencies of allowing entry without any demand of retrieving a watchword, lock combination etc and therefore, interrupting all limitations of accessing a secured country utilizing keys, magnetic card or any other fallible device which can be easy stolen. In the present epoch, widely available installations of telephones, Mobiles and tape recording equipments consequences in the abuse of the device and therefore, doing them an efficient tool in committee of condemnable offenses such as snatch, extortion, blackmail menaces, obscene calls, anon. calls, torment calls, ransom calls, terrorist calls, lucifer repairing etc. The felons has seen the possibility for abuse of the assorted manners of communicating of voice, believing that he will stay incognito, and therefore, cipher would acknowledge him. It is fortuitously no longer true. The voice can place him and trap the offense on him3. Speaker designation is less complicated and leads to a more definite sentiment when the expert has to cover with the normal or ideal voice acknowledgment. The job arises when the instances of cloaked voice samples, affecting both inadvertent every bit good as attempted camouflage, comes for the intent of designation. There is another facet that makes the accomplishment of this end of talker designation a spot hard i.e. the instance of about similar sounding talkers, sharing the same sex, age and idiom. Address Address is the voice signifier of human communication4. Human existences express their thoughts, ideas and feelings orally to one another through a series of complex motions that alter and mold the basic tone created by voice into specific, decodable sounds5. Speech development is a gradual procedure that requires old ages of pattern. Communication is a procedure, a series of events leting the talker to show ideas and emotions and the hearer to understand them. Speech communicating begins as idea that is transformed into linguistic communication for expression6. : Speech signal is a multidimensional acoustic wave7 ( as shown in fig 1 ) , which conveys the information about the words or message being spoken, individuality of the talker, linguistic communication spoken, the presence and type of address pathologies, the physical and emotional province of the talker. The individual s address besides contains the characteristics that may uncover their geographical beginning, ethnicity or race, age, sex, instruction degree and spiritual orientation and background8, 9, 10. Often, worlds are able to pull out the individuality information when the address comes from a talker they are acquainted with. Address is a compelling biometric for several good known grounds and peculiarly because it is the lone 1 available mode in a big set of situations11 SPEECH MECHANISM AND ITS UNIQUENESS The mechanism of address is a really complex one and to set about analysis of any linguistic communication it is of import to understand the procedures that go to do up the message that a talker transmits and a hearer receives12. For production of any sound, there must be some perturbation in the air. Such perturbation in the address sound is provided by motion of certain variety meats of organic structure such as musculuss of thorax, vocal cords, lingua, lips etc. This perturbation in the signifier of sound moving ridges travels to the ear of the hearer, who interprets the moving ridge as sound. By the procedure of inspiration the air from the environment is drawn into the lungs, stored in the lungs for a short period of clip and eventually expelled from the lungs under force per unit area by the procedure of halitus. During halitus, air under force per unit area is sent from the lungs to the voice box. The map of the voice box, peculiarly that portion known as the vocal creases, is to put the molecules of this breath watercourse into vibration13 ( as shown in fig 2 ) . For sound to be produced, these molecules have to vibrate at a rate that falls within a peculiar scope. The procedure by which molecules of air are set into quiver is known as voice. The quiver form of molecules produced by voice is complex. It contains a broad scope of frequences and has a buzzing sound. This bombilation is moulded into address sounds by vocal piece of land. The vocal piece of land consists of the throat ( pharynx ) , unwritten pit and rhinal pit. The constellation, or form, of the vocal piece of land at a peculiar minute determines what address sound will be produced. The constellation of the vocal piece of land can be changed by motion of several constructions within it specifically, the lingua, lips, lower jaw and soft palate14. Representation of address mechanism For identical voice, the two persons should hold the indistinguishable vocal mechanism and indistinguishable coordination of their articulators, which is least likely. Hence the human voice is alone personal trait. SPEAKER RECOGNITION Speaker acknowledgment may be defined as any activity in which a address sample is attributed to a individual on the footing of its acoustic or perceptual properties15.The information content of a spoken vocalization are talker features, spoken phrase, emotions, extra noise, channel transmutations etc16.It can be divided into Speaker Identification and Speaker Verification. Speaker designation determines which registered talker provides a given vocalization from amongst a set of known talkers. The unknown talker is identified as the talker hose theoretical account best matches the input vocalization. Speaker confirmation accepts or rejects the individuality claim of a talker is the talker the individual they say they are17, 18, 19? In talker acknowledgment, you do nt do the designation by analyzing the linguistic communication used, by retrieving what the talker looks like or by any other agencies. This is sometimes used when a individual is non rather certain whether the procedure is that of confirmation or identification20. In a strategy for the mechanical acknowledgment of the talkers, it is desirable to utilize acoustic parametric quantities that are closely related to voice features that distinguish talkers. It involves choice of such parametric quantities which are which are motivated by known dealingss between the voice signal and vocal-tract forms and gestures21. In talker acknowledgment we differ between low-level and high-ranking information. High level-information is values like a idiom, an speech pattern, the speaking manner, the capable mode of context, phonetics, prosodic and lexical information22. These characteristics are presently merely recognized and analyzed by worlds. The Low-level characteristics are denoted by the information like cardinal frequence ( F0 ) , formant frequence, pitch, strength, beat, tone, spectral magnitude and bandwidths of an person s voice23. An ideal characteristic would: Have lower intraspeaker variableness and high interspeaker variableness Be robust against noise and deformation Occurs often and of course in address Be easy to mensurate from speech signal Difficult to mime Not be affected by talker s wellness or long term fluctuations in voice There are different ways to categorise the characteristics. From the point of view of their physical reading, we can split them into24: Short-run spectral characteristics -These characteristics, as the name suggests, are computed from the short frames of approximately 20 to 30 msecs in continuance. They are normally the forms of the resonance belongingss of the supralaryngeal vocal piece of land. Voice beginning characteristics -These characteristics characterize the glottal excitement signal of sonant sounds such as glottal pulse form and cardinal frequence, and it is sensible to presume that they carry speaker-specific information. Spectro-temporal characteristics -It is sensible to presume that the spectro temporal Signal inside informations such as formant passages and energy transitions contain utile speaker-specific information. Prosodic features Prosody refers to non-segmental facets of address, including syllable emphasis, modulation forms, talking rate and beat. One of import facet of inflection is that, unlike the traditional short-run spectral characteristics, it spans over long sections like syllables, words, and vocalizations and reflects differences in talking manner, linguistic communication background, sentence type and emotion of the talker. High degree characteristics -These characteristics attempt to capture conversation-level features of talkers, such as characteristic usage of words ( uh-huh , you know , oh yeah , etc. ) . Other characteristics are the idiom of any linguistic communication used in the conversation by the talker, speech pattern of the talker and the manner of speech production. DISGUISED SPEECH Any type of change, deformation or divergence from the normal address, irrespective of the cause, is defined as the address camouflage. Disguise can take many signifiers, and can be really detrimental to both ballad every bit good as to proficient talker identification25.The condemnable frequently disguises his or her voice. The consequence of the camouflage is that, the acoustic characteristics of the condemnable example, is altered to go less similar to the acoustic characteristics of the existent felon s undisguised vocalizations. There tended to be two types of research. One type was non-electronic and attempted to mensurate the ability of non-expert worlds to place other worlds who were masking their voice in a assortment of ways. The 2nd type was electronic, frequently affecting speech spectrographs, or alleged voiceprints 26. The inquiry of voice camouflage sensing appears as cardinal in forensic applications. Different sorts of attacks provide important consequences of favoritism. A complementary survey based on formant and automatic analysis could be fused to increase the acknowledgment rate27. MOTIVATION IN STUDYING DISGUISED SPEECH28 By and large, the adept faces two types of challenges while analyzing the questioned. First, cloaked voice is frequently used in the commitment of a offense where the felon has the fright of being caught. Often, it is necessary to place or verify a suspect based on the cloaked voice. Some agencies is needed to: Determine that a voice has been disguised on a voice recording, Determine the method of camouflage Perform computing machine talker designation despite the camouflage. The 2nd challenge is that the talker designation basically is incapable of accurately finding the individuality of a talker when a trial sample of his cloaked address is compared to a mention based on his normal speech production manner. To day of the month, and to the best of our cognition, the above statement remains true. One end of forensic talker acknowledgment is to set about research to change by reversal that state of affairs, at least for a big and utile subset of camouflage types. TYPES OF DISGUISE Disguised address can be of two types: Non- deliberate or inadvertent disguise- This signifier of voice camouflage involves changes that consequence from some nonvoluntary province of the person. The instances of inadvertent camouflage involve the impermanent alteration in individual s address due to alter in physical province like due to masticating, eating and illness or emotional province of individual like emphasis, choler, fright, jitteriness, sunniness, surprise, sadness etc. Research has been done for developing robust and precise automatic talker confirmation system based on these talker based fluctuation in features29. Deliberate or attempted disguise- The samples of attempted camouflage are often encountered in the instances of anon. calls, ransom calls and endangering calls where the talker makes a calculated attempt to alter their voice by altering its phonic, phonemic and prosodic characteristics, in order to conceal their individuality due to the fright of being caught. TECHNIQUES USED FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION In this epoch of telephones, wireless and tape recording equipment communications, the human voice may frequently turn out to be valuable grounds for tie ining an person with condemnable act. The telephoned bomb menace, obscene calls or tape recorded ransom messages have become frequent plenty happenings to justify the involvement of jurisprudence enforcement functionaries in scientific techniques capable of transforming the voice into a signifier suitable for personal identification31. Speaker designation is to find who the talker of the given vocalization is. To make so it is necessary to cognize a great trade about that individual s address feature ( a rare happening ) or to be able to fit the voices of the unknown speaker to one from the group of suspects. Assorted methodological analysiss for nearing the job of talker designation have been proposed. For designation intent, different good recognized criterion techniques will be used for keeping the cogency of the work done and the pick will be as per the demand: 1 ) Listener method or Auditory analysis- The voice of a individual is as easy distinguishable by the ear, as face by the oculus. This method of talker acknowledgment by listening is the oldest amongst all. In this state of affairs a individual attempts to acknowledge a voice by its familiarity32. The extraordinary ability of worlds to acknowledge many familiar people by their voices is exceeding both in truth and adaptability33. In this method, the determination of similarity and unsimilarities is taken by human experts after hearing of address samples. One method is of perennial hearing of the available audio files by a group of experts looking for similarities in lingual, phonic and acoustic characteristics. The different vocalizations of the talkers are segregated in regard of each talker by manner of perennial hearing of recorded conversation. The unintegrated conversations of each talker are repeatedly heard to place lingual characteristics and phonic characteristics like articulation rate, flow of address, grade of vo wels and harmonic formation, beat, dramatic clip, pauses etc. The hint words are selected from both questioned and specimen samples of the talker and are so used for instrumental analysis. Human hearers are robust talker recognizers when presented with the debauched address. Listener public presentation is a map of acoustic variables such as, the signal to resound ratio, address bandwidth, the sum of speech stuff, deformations in the address signals introduced by address cryptography, transmittal systems, etc. This is owing to the fact that there are beginnings of cognition that contribute in assorted ways to speaker acknowledgment ; supplying weak, moderate and high know aparting power. Auditory talker acknowledgment has long been used and accepted in forensics as portion of the testimony of a victim or informant. Prior to the innovations of the telephone and sound recording equipments, it could be the cardinal grounds on behalf of which a suspected person could be identified or excluded from an offense committed in the dark or when a victim has been blindfolded34. However, with any human determination procedure, it is stressed that the hearer method leads to a subjec tive determination. However, this method is still used in some states for forensic talker designation. 2 ) Instrumental analysis or Spectrographic method- The spectrographic method for talker acknowledgment makes usage of an instrument that converts the address signals into a ocular show. Today voice analysis has matured into a sophisticated designation technique, utilizing the latest engineering scientific discipline has to offer. Both aural and spectrographic analyses are combined to organize the decision about the individuality of voice in question35. In 1941, an electro mechanical acoustic spectrograph was developed by Dr. Raleph Potter, Bell Telephone Laboratory, with an thought to change over sounds into pictures36. A sound spectrograph is an instrument which is able to give a lasting record of altering energy-frequency distribution throughout the clip of a address wave37, ( as shown in fig 3 and fig 4 ) . Spectrograms are ocular representations of the speech signal ; they convey information about the message by the talker every bit good as about the talker himself. In this method, the sentiment about similarities or unsimilarities between two samples will be taken on the footing of their phonic and acoustic elements such as, frequences, amplitude, plosive continuance, voiceless signals at different places etc. The sound spectrograph is more normally known as the Voiceprint analyzer. Voice forms are transformed into ocular forms on a graph that moves through an instrument at a controlled velocity, and forms drawn on the paper as it moves. By analyzing the charts, you can compare a tape of an person s normal address form with a tape of the same individual being questioned about his or her engagem ent in some type of offense or other misbehaviour38. These voiceprints may be an of import in assisting the jurisprudence enforcement bureaus in placing the felons. Much like fingerprints, voiceprint designation uses the alone characteristics in the spectrographic feelings of people s utterances39. In the classical parallel spectrograph a magnetic tape recording equipment and playback unit is used to treat the sounds into electronic signals. These signals are so sent through a variable electronic bandpass filter, which selects a frequence set that is to be analysed, before a stylus measures its energy and records the consequences on electrical sensitive paper. The paper is mounted on a membranophone, which is revolving during playback in order to plot the clip fluctuations in the signal. When the whole length of the address sample in analysed at a specific frequence set, the set of the filter and the place of the stylus are correspondingly altered. The tape is so played once more in order to analyze a new portion of the frequence spectrum. This procedure is repeated over once more until the full coveted frequence scope is analysed. In each spectrograph, the horizontal dimension is clip, the perpendicular dimension represents frequence and the darkness represents the strength on the compaction scale40.The differences in amplitude values are shown in a Grey scaling where black represents the most intense and white the least intense wave form constituents. However since 1962, it was considered as a fool- cogent evidence method of personal designation, voice designation by spectrographic analysis, the voiceprint technique has been in a legal oblivion. But the recent developments in both scientific discipline and the jurisprudence, nevertheless, indicate that despite ab initio inauspicious scientific and judicial reaction, spectrographic voice designation is possibly coming of legal age41. 3 ) Computerized approach- This is a semi automatic attack for acknowledgment of address samples which involves three phases: Feature Extraction Feature Comparison Categorization In this method the parametric quantities of the signals are extracted by agencies of spectrum analyser and acknowledgment is made by agencies of computing machine system on the footing of stored informations in regard of controlled samples of the talkers. However it is observed that the mistake rates of machines are frequently more than an order of magnitude greater than those of worlds, as machine public presentation degrades below that of worlds in noise, with channel variableness, and for self-generated speech42. 4 ) Modern technique utilizing a package: BATVOX 3.043- BATVOX 3.0 is an automatic talker acknowledgment application designed to let the biometric designation of talkers in an probe comparing voice theoretical accounts to a set of sounds added in the system. The audio files entered in BATVOX 3.0 have to carry through certain conditions: BATVOX 3.0 accepts audio files in the undermentioned format: .wav files with additive PCM cryptography, trying frequence 8 KHz, 16-bit declaration and glandular fever. Manages audio files of at least 7 seconds of net address. Manages audio files whose signal to resound ratio is more than 10dBs The trial and the preparation audio files should possess the voice of the talkers sharing the same sex, same linguistic communication and have same channel features LIMITATIONS OF SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION44 Short continuance samples should be analysed decently The dissimilar linguistic communication in questioned and specimen are hard to analyse Emotion Variability in questioned and specimen samples45 Misspoken or misread prompted phrases Ill recorded/noisy samples are hard to analyze46 Insufficient figure of comparable words Disguise in address samples poses a job in talker acknowledgment and/or the grade of camouflage is decided by the expert Extreme emotional provinces ( e.g. emphasis or duress ) 47,48 Change in physical province of the talker ( e.g. feeding, consequence of ethyl alcohol, etc ) 49 The attitude of the how the address is said by the talker Channel mismatch or mismatch in entering conditions ( e.g. utilizing different mikes for registration and confirmation ) 50 Different pronunciation velocity of the trial informations compared with the preparation informations. Illness 51,52 Aging ( the vocal piece of land can float off from theoretical accounts with age ) 53,54 ACCURACY IN SPEAKER RECOGNITION In order to acquire accurate consequences from talker acknowledgment, one must give more accent on following factors: The minimal continuance of the gathered samples should be of 60 seconds Conditionss under which the voice samples are recorded should possess less noise or the signal to resound ratio of the samples should be greater The features of the instruments used The accomplishment of the tester doing judgement Examiners knowledge about the instance Examiners knowledge about the linguistic communication in question55 Properties of the voice involved Delay in scrutiny of samples56 The linguistic communication of the questioned and controlled samples should be similar The expert should be competent plenty to cover with the instances affecting cloaked address samples. CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFICATION A hearer may acknowledge a voice even without seeing the talker. There are cues in voice and address behavior, which are single and therefore do it possible to acknowledge the familiar voices57. A individual s mental ability to command his vocal piece of land musculuss during vocalization is learned during his childhood. These wonts affect the scope of sound that may be efficaciously produced by an person. The scope of sounds is the subset of the set of possible sounds that an person could make with his or her personal vocal piece of land. It is non easy for an single to alter voluntarily these physical characteristics58. The address moving ridge is the response of the vocal piece of land filter system to one or more sound beginning. Speech moving ridge may be unambiguously specified in footings of beginning and filter characteristics59. Datas obtained from measurings of the acoustic belongingss of human voices are really different from Deoxyribonucleic acid profiles. Acoustic inform ations are uninterrupted non distinct and the talker neer says the same thing, precisely the same manner twice. The strength of grounds from a forensic voice comparing can non be expressed as a lucifer chance and must be expressed in signifier of a full likeliness ratio60. It is observed that really dependable determinations can be made by trained professional testers when samples are obtained in the mode described. The surveies produced strong grounds that even really good mimics can non double an- other s address patterns61. The standards of designation of address samples utilizing different techniques are discussed as follows: Auditory analysis- In this method, the designation is done on the footing of following voice characteristics- Quality of speech sample- Synthetic address can be compared and evaluated with regard to intelligibility, naturalness, and suitableness for used application62. Pronunciation, Accent, Speech sounds like vowels and consonants, stop consonants, spirants, nasal and pharynx sounds and matching consequence, Grammar, Stress, Syllable emphasis, Intonation, Rhythm, Fluency, tempo, Phrasing and Blending63. Each individual possesses a alone voice quality which depend on figure of anatomical characteristics, such as, dimension of unwritten piece of land, throat, rhinal pit, form and size of lingua and lips, place of dentition, tissue denseness etc. Linguistic features- Linguistics is the scientific survey of natural linguistic communication. These characteristics involves, the fashionable feeling of address, bringing of address ( the manner in which the address is delivered i.e. , Manuscript, Memorized, Impromptu, and Extemporaneous64 ) , Phonation ( the procedure by which the vocal creases produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic quiver or any oscillating province of any portion of voice box that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is one example65 ) . Articulatory speech- This is a type of address produced by motion or articulation of the articulators. This involves, flow of address ( depends upon the eloquence of the speaker66 ) , plosive formation ( First, a complete closing of the transition of air at the same point in the vocal piece of land, so the remotion of the closing, doing a sudden release of the out of use air with some explosive noise ) , nasality ( Nasal consonants have a uninterrupted full closing at some point in the unwritten pit. Since the veil is set in the low place, opening the velopharyngeal port, air is let out through the rhinal pit ) . Prosodic analysis- It involves the modulation form, moral force of volume ( kineticss refers to the volume of a sound or note and volume is the strength of esthesis received through the ear ) , speech rate ( comparative timing of different address events in spoken vocalizations ) , speech fluctuations, striking clip characteristics, intermissions ( number/length/pattern ) . Voice impairment- Speech or linguistic communication damage ( SLI ) means a communicating upset, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, linguistic communication damage, or a voice damage, that adversely affects a individual s educational public presentation. Speech and linguistic communication upsets refer to jobs in communicating and related countries such as unwritten motor map. These holds and upsets range from simple sound permutations to the inability to understand or utilize linguistic communication or utilize the oral-motor mechanism for functional address and eating. Some causes of address and linguistic communication upsets include hearing loss, neurological upsets, encephalon hurt, mental deceleration, drug maltreatment, physical damages such as cleft lip or roof of the mouth, and vocal maltreatment or abuse. Frequently, nevertheless, the cause is unknown. Temporal measurements- The temporal belongingss of address play an of import function in lingual contrast. Address can be said to be comprised of three chief temporal characteristics based on dominant fluctuation rates ; envelope, cyclicity and all right construction. Each characteristic has distinct acoustic manifestations, auditory and perceptual correlatives and functions in lingual contrasts67. These measurings involves phonation-time ( P/T ) ratio, address clip ( S/T ) rate, address explosion ( its number/length/patterns ) . Spectrographic analysis- The spectrograph is an instrument used to analyze the complex wave forms of sound and their changes in clip. This is done through spectrographs, which are in writing shows of the amplitude as a map of both frequence and time68. In this method, the hint words are selected from the questioned and the specimen samples on the footing of audile analysis. These are so selected for voice spectrographic analysis. A trained tester may be able to give an sentiment about the similarity between the two samples on the footing of features like: Cardinal frequency- It is the frequence of quiver of vocal cord produced during the rapid gap and shutting of vocal cord69, ( as shown in fig 5 ) . The cardinal frequence of a periodic signal is an opposite of period length. The period, in bend, is the smallest reiterating unit of a signal70. In voice spectrograph, horizontal distance between perpendicular striations is an indicant of cardinal frequence. It besides includes the pitch of voice i.e. , the rate of quiver of vocal cords. Software, BATVOX 3.0- The working of this package depends upon the undermentioned elements43: Case- It is the depository of audio files, theoretical accounts and computations portion of the same probe or forensic instance. Audio file- this is the first component to come in into the system in order to construct the theoretical accounts and calculate some biometric computations. The audio files in BATVOX can chiefly classified in two types Trial sound: Unknown sound file used to be compared to a fishy theoretical account in order to happen it out if both belongs to the same talker Training sound: sound file recorded from the known talker, used to make a voice theoretical account which can be compared with the trial sound files. Model- A theoretical account generated from the sound files is the representation of features of the talker s voice. Training of a model- A biometric procedure which extracts the features of the voice from the sound samples and therefore, generates a theoretical account. Session- Group of computations gathered together because of some common facets harmonizing to the standards of the user. The computations included in a session can be designation and a LR computation. Identification- The aim of the talker designation is to sort a voice whose beginning is non known. Likelihood ratio ( LR ) It is a relationship of chances. First, we have the likeliness that the trial belongs to a suspect and secondly, the trial does non belong to the suspect. One of the differences between the LR and designation is the manner of showing consequences. Normalization- It is the procedure of rectifying the effects that the deficiency of alliance has on statistical marking. This deficiency of alliance is caused by the heterogenous nature of the sound system. Reference population- These types of samples are fundamentally required for the standardization of the instrument. For a proper choice of the mention population, the features of the population should fit the features of the disputed talker. These features include the sex of the talker, channel type, net spoken length and language75. Mentions Phil Rose A ; James R Robertson, Forensic Speaker Identification , Taylor A ; Francis,1999 MohamedChenafa et Al, Biometric System Based on Voice Recognition Using Multiclassifiers , Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Volume 5372/2008 B.R. Sharma, Scientific Criminal Investig
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Characteristics of Business Leadership - Essay Example In this context, the present study focuses on a highly popular business leader, Steven Jobs, the founder of Apple Computer Company and shall learn about his role and practices that he used in his leadership attributes in his company. Steven Jobs: The Initiation of His Leadership Skills in Business: Steven Paul Jobs, as now remembered as Steve Jobs, was a highly popular tycoon in the world of business proving to be a highly successful entrepreneur in the electronics and information technology industry. He has been part of several patents related to the invention and development of computer related products. Initially discussing about his business life, it was in 1977 that Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak together presented their first microcomputer in the White House. It was named as Apple II and the entire marketing plan and decisions were undertaken by Jobs. By 1993, the sale of the product made the two inventors millionaires. Thereafter, Jobs continued with his newer inventions, as wel l as managing his Apple Company with due sincerity and leadership. When he realized that the company needed experienced administration, he involved John Sculley in the team of management (Biography of Steve Jobs and Timeline of Apple, 2011). In this context it can be understood that the business leader survived several challenges while he could reach to the level of success. Firstly, he was new in the market that represented the fear of not being recognized by consumers. Secondly, his product was associated with the IT thus there could only be certain sections of people who would be interested. Thirdly, the first microcomputer that they invented was meant for commercial purposes and for the mass. Thus lack of acceptance could pose severe threats to their career. However, although the above mentioned challenges existed, Jobs became successful and his Apple Company gradually proved to be a huge success. This in other words reflects on the efficient leadership and management style that Jobs presented in his work. Business Leadership of Steve Jobs: Steve Jobs was known for his autocratic style of leadership values. He used to remain personally involved in all the steps and measures undertaken for the objectives of his company. For his working team, he used to involve people who matched with his mindset and he was highly demanding. He did not love delegating authority to people and would rather get involved in person in every aspect of operation. Jobs was extremely serious with his work and loved his Company too much to even lessen his involvement while he was ill (Branson, 2011). SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s inventions were meant for the global markets and thus he had to encounter cultural differences as well. However, the success of the company represents that Steve had been capable of adjusting to the differences and marketing his products successful across the world. The primary reason behind his adjustment and success was his love and involvement for the technology that he worked on. Steve believed in thinking differently and had faith in the values and principles of the company that he never left behind. Compassion for his company allowed the business leader to stick to his views and policies and continue with delivering his products successfully in the global market as well as adjusting with different cultures across the world. He delivered his products not depending on the choices
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Trials and Verdicts - Research Paper Example This is the sixth year of the case and the reporter still refuses to identify the source of the story (Liptak, 2014). The matter in discussion involves the US intelligence particularly about a covert operation conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Iran that was meant to stop this country from having nuclear power. The mission was top government secret but the ex-CIA officer involved revealed it to the reporter who then wrote it in his published book as a whole chapter. The matter cannot therefore be handles by a state court as it involves the federal government and hence the reason the subpoena was from the Court of Appeals and the matter was later taken to the Supreme Court. If the case involved only the reporter and not a federal organization, then it would have been appropriately handled by the state courts but this was not the case. The case is about a soldier in Iraq that shot and killed 5 fellow soldiers two of whom were medical personnel in an open fire in their camp near the Baghdad airport. The man based on the murder charges was to be convicted to a death penalty but he instead took a plea bargain that would prevent him from being under death penalty but pleaded guilty of all the murder charges. The plea bargain deal was bargained by his lawyer and was accepted by the judge even though he would still face court trial. The plea bargain that was taken was solely as a result of his medical history and the diagnosis of a post-traumatic stress disorder at the time of the shooting (Johnson, 2013). Not many people and especially the family of the murdered soldiers would accept that justice has been served but in this case it was served. According to the report by Johnson, (2013), Russell the defendant had been suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis at the time of the shooting and the maltreatment he received from the medical personnel triggered the violence streak which he could not
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Korean Airline Porter's 5 Forces - Coursework Example The customers of KAL include passengers, corporate organizations as well as other actors in the aircraft industry among others. The table below highlights the industry analysis that constitutes PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces that can impact on its operations. KAL has a total of 149 aircraft and is the largest in terms of consumers and it specializes in offering services in the following sectors: Passenger services, components and parts, aerospace services as well as cargo (KAI). However, there are other competitors in the aviation industry which include the following: Asiana Airlines which is the second largest airline in Korea, currently operating a total of 83 aircraft, on top of that, there are also five Low Cost Carriers (LCC): Jeju Air, Jin Air, Air Busan, Eastar Jet, and TÃ¢â¬â¢Way Air. Though KAL is the largest airline, the existence of rivalry among the other existing players cannot be ignored. It poses a threat to the airline. As noted above, there are six other competitors in the aircraft industry which entails that the threat of substitutes is high. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"In 2013, 4.9 million international travelers, or 9.6% of all international travelers, used LCCs,Ã¢â¬ (KAI). The number of passengers using LCCs has dramatically increased which means that they can switch from KAL to these low cost planes. On the other hand, the consumers have the power to determine prices since they can easily switch to low cost careers and this in turn can force Korean Airlines to review its prices downwards. According to KAI, the bargaining power of suppliers is low as a result of the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"all U.S. aerospace exports are duty-free as of March 15, 2012, and as a result of the implementation of the Korea-U.S. FTA (KORUS).Ã¢â¬ This means that this trade agreement between the two countries is specifically meant to protect the interests of both nations. Prices are regulated at acceptable levels
Friday, November 15, 2019
Water and power consumption: Analysis of sewage treatment plant 1. INTRODUCTION: Waters unique Characteristics and its essential Role for all life have inspired myths and influenced cultures, religions, art, and literature through all times. The process involved for the RBC Biological Treatment method is named as FIXED FILM ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR BIOWHEELS. In this process by means of rotation of the bio wheels micro organisms are expected to growth in the RBC and the overflow from the Lamella clarifier will be the first stage of the treated water. The micro organisms will develop on the surface of the disk and the colonization of the organisms will take place because of the inlet load into the system. The thick film like formation in the surface of the disk is the indication of the growth. In Sewage water the main constituents of Pollutants being organic in nature these can be digested easily in the RBC. Sewage is created by institutions, residences, and hospitals and commercial and industrial establishments. Raw influent of sewage wastewater includes household waste liquid from the toilets, sinks, showers, kitchens, baths, and so forth that is disposed of sewage waste water. 1.1 Aim: The aim of the project is to Analysis of water consumption and power consumption of sewage treatment plant. 1.2 Objective: * To Analysis the water and power consumption of the sewage treatment plant * To vary the parameters of water source, power source. * To Analyze the Rotating Biological contactor Biowheels.Lamella clarifier * Analyzing 2D design of the Sewage Treatment Plant. * To analyze the results and propose appropriate solution. 2. BACKGROUND RESEARCH: Waste water collected from domestic and industrial communities must be returned to receiving waters or to the land. Although the collecting of storm water and drainage dates from ancient times the collection of waste water can be traced only to the early 1800s. The systematic treatment of wastewater followed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. There are many methods and processes to treat wastewater. The most common approach uses primary treatment (screening and clarification) to remove solids; aerobic, suspended growth, activated sludge secondary treatment to reduce organic pollutants; and chlorine disinfection to reduce pathogens. Secondary treatment is the largest energy consumer (30 to 60% of total plant usage), followed by pumping and sludge processing. Although suspended growth, activated sludge is the most common wastewater treatment process, it is not the most energy efficient. Aerated lagoons, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors are significantly more efficient. They are not as widely used because aerated lagoons require a large land area, and trickling filters and rotating biological contactors are better suited for smaller capacity applications. Many wastewater treatment plants are shifting from chlorine-based disinfection to UV disinfection to eliminate the risk of storage and handling of toxic chemicals. Although UV disinfection is energy intensive, it adds no chemical residue to the effluent. This feature is particularly important for discharge to sensitive aquatic environments or for wastewater reuse. In general, low pressure UV systems are substantially more efficient than medium pressure systems. Energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment include the use of fine bubble diffusers, dissolved oxygen control of aeration, high efficiency blowers, variable frequency drives on pumps and blowers, premium efficiency motors, and the reduction of the head against which pumps and blowers operate. Sewage is generally a mixture of domestic of waste water from bath, sinks and washing machines and toilets, waste water from all industry and rainwater runoff from roads and other surfaced areas. Every day in the UK about 347,000 Kilometers of sewers collect over 11 Billion liters of waste water. This is treated about 9000 sewage treatment works before the treated effluent is discharged to inland waters, estuaries and the sea. Without suitable treatment, the waste water we produce every day would damage the water environmental and creates to affect the public health problems. Untreated sewage contains organic matter carbohydrates, fats and proteins, bacteria and chemicals. Bacteria naturally present in environmental waters do break these substances down, but in doing so they use the oxygen dissolved in this water. If there were large or continuous untreated discharges of urban waste water the result could be too little oxygen for fish and other aquatic life to survive. So the purpose of waste water treatment is to remove organic substances to protect the environment from these effects. Sewage works therefore reproduce what would be occurring in the environmental. Settling out much of the solid matter is called Primary Treatment, and using Bacteria that digest and break down the organic substances is called Secondary Treatment. Sometimes further treatment Tertiary is required to protect sensitive water environments; Tertiary treatment can involve disinfecting the treated effluent to protect the bathing and shellfish waters. It can also involve the removal of phosphorous or nitrates nutrients present in sewage. To protect the waters that is threatened by eutrophication. (ref sewage treatment in the UK defray department for environment food Rural affairs,PB 6655 March 2002.). 3. LITERATURE REVIEW: Municipal water use is generally divided into four categories, 1. Domestic water normally used for sanitary and general purposes 2. Industrial water used for nondomestic purposes, 3. The Public service water normally used for fir fighting, and system maintenance and also municipal landscape irrigation. 4. Unaccounted for system losses and leakage The following data are typical municipal water use in the United States Report. ( (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) Table 1 Municipalities water use 3.1 Domestic water use:. Domestic water use encompasses the water supplied to residential areas ,and commercial districts, institutional facilities, and recreational facilities as a measured by individual water meters .The uses to which this water is put include drinking, washing, bathing, culinary, and waste removal, and yard watering these kind of water collected from household sewage. Using the average flow values reported in above table of the water used in a municipal water supply system is for domestic purposes. 3.2 Residential areas: The water normally used by residential households consists of water for interior use such as showers and toilets and water for exterior use such as lawn watering and car washing, the household wastewater mostly used in sewage treatment plant. Typical data for interior water use are presented in below table. How much amount of water used in residential areas water use for exterior applications varies widely depending upon the geographic location, climate and time of year and mainly consists of landscape irrigation. The Residential areas 100% of water normally used by typical distribution of residential interior water use the following table given details Table 2 Typical distribution interior water use (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.3 Commercial facilities: The water used by commercial facilities for sanitary purposes will vary widely depending on the type of activity means example of offices and compared to a restaurant. Typical water use values for various types of commercial facilities are reported in following table also for large commercial water using facilities such as laundries and car washes, careful estimates of actual water use should be made. Table 3 Typical rates of water use for commercial facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.4 Institutional facilities: Water used by facilities such as hospitals, schools and rest home is usually based on some measure of the size of the facility and the type of housing function provided example of per student or per bed, and water normally use for schools will vary significantly depending on whether the students are housed on campus or are day students. The representative water use values for institutional facilities are reported following table. Table 4 Typical water-use values for institutional facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.5 Recreational Facilities: The recreational facilities mostly water used in such as swimming pools, bowling alleys, and camps, resorts, then country clubs perform a wide range of functions involving water use. The following table typical water use values are reported. Table: Typical water-use values for recreational facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 4. SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT: 4.1PRINCIPLE: Sewage treatment plant there are two main types of biological reaction, depending upon the presence or absence of free oxygen, the aerobic reaction takes place only in the presence of free oxygen and produces stable, relatively inert end products. Anaerobic reaction are more complex, being two stage, proceeding relatively slowly and leading to end products which are unstable and which still contain considerable amounts of energy. In any biological reaction the energy in the organic matter, used as food by the microorganisms, is split three ways; some is used in creating new microorganisms, some is incorporated in the end products of the reaction, the proportions of energy in the three areas depend upon the nature of the reaction, the type of organic matter, the type of microorganisms,and environmental conditions. The organic matter in wastewater thus provides the well as providing the energy for the oxidation reactions which releases the end products of biological treatment. (THY Teb butt,1990). Domestic sewage satisfies all these requirements but some industrial wastewaters may be lacking in nutrients or other factors, which could result in inhibition of biological activity, Toxic substances present in the wastewater can also mean that biological treatment of an organic wastewater is ineffective, although it is sometimes possible for microorganisms to become acclimated to substances which initially appear to be toxic. The aim of conventional biological treatment processes is to achieve almost complete removal of the organic matter in the feed. The activated sludge system is a common form of dispersed growth reactor, and both systems require a settling facility to remove the excess biological solids produced in the process. In the case of fixed film systems the solids are essentially dead cells, but with the dispersed growth activated sludge systems the bulk of the cells are living and are returned to the reactor for re use, only the excess solids being removed. (THY Tebbut t,1990). Characterstics of waste water sewage treatment plant: Ã · Bio chemical oxygen demand Ã · Total dissolved solids Ã · Chemical oxygen demand Ã · Total suspended solids Ã · PH Ã · Bio chemical oxygen demand: It is a measure of the amount of oxygen that bacteria will consume while decomposing organic matter under aerobic conditions. Ã · Total dissolved solids: It comprises inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. The principle constituents are usually the captions , calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium and the anions carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate and particularly in groundwater nitrate. Ã · Chemical oxygen demand: It is a measure of the total quantity of oxygen required to oxidize all organic material into carbon dioxide and water. * Total suspended solids: It is a measure of the suspended solids in waste water, effluent, or water bodies determined by tests for Total suspended non-filterable solids. Ã · PH: It is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The PH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14. ( www.answers.com ) Classification of Waste Water Treatment Methods The wastewater treatment is contaminants are removed by physical, chemical and also biological methods. Sewage Treatment Plant individual methods usually are classified as a physical unit operations, chemical unit operations and also Biological unit operations and processes. Although these operations and processes occur in a variety of combinations in Treatment Systems. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 4.2 Physical operations unit: The Treatment methods in which the application of physical forces to predominate are known as physical operation unit. Because most of these methods involved directly from the first observations of a nature, and they were the first to be used for wastewater .treatment. These are the Screening, Mixing, Flocculation, Flotation,sedimentation,Filtration,and Gas transfer are typical unit operations. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972). Screening: The first off all unit operation entered in wastewater treatment plants is screening .a screen is a device with openings ,generally of uniform a size, that is using to retain the coarse solids found in wastewater. Description: The screening elements may consists of parallel bars, wires or ,grating, rods, mesh, or perforated plate ,a screen composed of parallel bars or rods is called a bar rack sometimes called a bar screen). The term screen is used for screening devices consisting of perforated plates wedges wire elements and wire cloth. The materials removed by these devices are known as screenings. Bar Racks: In Wastewater treatment, bar racks are used to protect the Pumps pipelines valves and other appurtenances from the damaged or clogging by a rags and large objects. Screens: Sewage treatment plant is widely used to Barscreening,early screens were of the inclined disk or drum type, whose screening media consisted of bronze or copper plates with milled slots ,and were installed in place of sedimentation tanks for primary treatment .since the early 1970s,there has been resurgence of interest in the field of wastewater treatment in the use of screens of all types ,the application range from primary treatment to the removal of the residual suspended solids from biological treatment processes. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) Mixing: Mixing is an important unit operation in many phases of wastewater treatment including (1)the mixing of one substances completely with another, (2)the mixing of liquid suspensions,(3)the blending of miscible liquids,(4)flocculation and (5)heat transfer .chemicals are also mixed with sludge to improve tidal watering characteristics. In anaerobic digestion, mixing is used accelerate the biological conversion process and to heat the contents of the digester uniformly . Description Apparatus: Most mixing operations in wastewater can be classified as continuous rapid or continuous. Continuous -rapid mixing is used most often where one substance is to be mixed with another. Continuous mixing is used where the contents of reactor or holding tank or basin must be kept in suspension. Energy dissipation mixing: The power input per unit volume of liquid can be used as a rough measure of mixing effectiveness, based on the reasoning that more input power creates greater turbulance,and greater turbulence leads to better mixing. Sedimentation:: It is one of the most widely used in waste water treatment, sedimentation is the separation from the water, by gravitational settling, of suspended solids that are heavier than water, it is one of the most widely used unit operations in wastewater treatment .A Sedimentation basin may also be referred to as a sedimentation tank, settling basin ,or settling tank, Sedimentation is used for grit removal, particularly floating matter removal in the primary settling basin, biological float removal in the activated sludge and settling basin and chemical flog removal. Whenever the chemical coagulation processes is used. 4.3 Chemical unit processes: Sewage treatment plant is widely used to chemical unit processes ,This Treatment Methods in which the removal or conversion of the contaminants is brought about by the chemicals or by other chemical reactions are known as a chemical processes unit. There are three different types chemical processes used in the wastewater treatment.Precipitation,and disinfection and adsorption, which the process mostly used in the wastewater treatment. In the chemical precipitation ,treatment is also accomplished by producing a chemical precipitate that will settle. In most cases the settled precipitate will contain the both constituents that may have reacted with the adding to chemicals and the substance that were swept of wastewater as the predicated settled in the water. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 4.4 Chemical coagulation: The settlement of fine colloidal and suspended solids can be assisted by the use of flocculation as but with dilute suspensions, such as lowland river waters, the opportunities for collisions and agglomeration are limited. In such circumstances flocculation does not significantly improve the settling characteristics of the suspension. the addition of a chemical coagulant, which precipitates flocculent solids in the water, followed by flocculation and sedimentation, can provide a high degree of clarification. the processes of chemical coagulation is thus carried out in a sequence of operations, the first of which involves rapid to permit enmeshment of the colloidal solids in the rapidly precipitating flock. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Following the initial stage precipitation stage, the suspension is passed to flocculation and sedimentation units, which may be separate or combined. the most popular coagulant for potable water treatment is aluminum sulphate, often referred to as alum. When it is added to water in small doses of around 20-50mg/l,a reaction takes place with the natural alkalinity present, and insoluble aluminum hydroxide is formed. this responds well to controlled flocculation. The chemical reactions which occur are complex but may be simplified as Al2(SO4)3 +3Ca(HCO3)2 = 2Al(OH)3 + 3CaSo4 +6CO2 When using the commercial alum which has 16-18 molecules of water of crystallization, and expressing alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate, each mg/l of alum reacts with 0.5mg/l of alkalinity. By using a range of coagulant does and PH values ,it is possible to determine the optimum conditions to achieve the required water quality. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Chemical precipitation: In essence ,chemical precipitation depends upon the use of an added reagent which combines with the impurity to be removed to give an insoluble product which can then be removed by sedimentation, preceded by flocculation if necessary. A(impurity) + B(reagent) = C (precipitate) + D(by product) It is clearly essential that any byproduct of the reaction does not itself have undesirable properties in relation to the eventual use of the water or wastewater. It is also important to remember that chemical precipitation processes produce sludges containing the impurities and that the cost of handling and disposing of these sludges in a safe manner can be significant. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Disinfection: Disinfection refers to the selective destroy of disease causing organism .all the organisms are not destroyed of during the process; this differentiates disinfection from sterilization, which is the destruction of all organisms. In the field of waste water treatment, there are three categories of human enteric organisms of the greatest consequence in producing disease are viruses, bacteria, and amoebic cysts. Disinfection is widely used to wastewater sewage treatment plant; there are well -established links between the contamination of drinking water with facial matter and the incidence of such water related diseases as cholera, typhoid and many gastrointestinal infections. Thus the removal of the pathogenic microorganisms from water supplies is a very valuable measure for the improvement of public health. Disinfection means the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms and does not necessarily mean that the water is sterile, since a small number of harmless microorganisms are usually present in tap water and poses no hazard. For most disinfection the rate of kill is given by dN/dt = -KN where k = rate constant N = number of living microorganisms The rate constant varies with the particular disinfectant, its concentration, the organism being killed,PH,Temperature,and other environmental factors. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) 5. Biological unit processes: Sewage Treatment plant is widely used to Biological unit processes ,this is processes is remove the microorganism of the water, In this Treatment methods in which the removal of contaminants is bring about by biological activity are known as a biological unit processes. Biological treatment is used primary to remove the biodegradable organic substances matter (means colloidal or dissolved )in wastewater.Basically,these substances matter are converted into the gases that can be escaped to the atmosphere and into the biological cell tissue unit that can be removed by settling. At the same time this treatment is also used to remove the nutrients (means nitrogen and phosphorous) in wastewater. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 5.1 Components of wastewater Flows The components of the wastewater flows that make up the wastewater flow from a community depend on the type of collection system used and may include the following: There are four types of wastewater flows available in the wastewater treatment. 1. Domestic (is also called sanitary) wastewater. This is kind of wastewater discharged from residences and from commercial,instutional , and house hold sewage toilet waste water, bath, sinks ,and canteen wastewater and similar facilities. 2. Industrial wastewater .this kind of wastewater in which industrial wastes predominate. 3. Infiltration/inflow .water that enters the sewer system through the indirect and direct means. The Infiltration is extraneous water enters that the sewer system through the leaking joints. 4. Storm water. Runoff resulting from rainfall and snowmelt. This kind of components of wastewater flows essentially used in the sewage treatment plant. 5.2 Waste water treatment: There are four different types of wastewater processing in available in sewage treatment plant. Primary treatment referred to physical unit operations. Secondary treatment referred to chemical and Biological unit process, and also Advanced or tertiary referred to combinations of all four other processing. Ã · Preliminary wastewater treatment: Preliminary wastewater treatment is defined as the removal of wastewater constituents that may causes to maintenance of the operational problems with the treatment of the operations. Examples of preliminary operations are screening and commutation for the removal of debris (J.Staudenmann, A. Schonborn, C. Etnier, 1996).primary wastewater treatment: In primary wastewater treatment, a portion of the suspended solids and organic material is removing from the waste water. This removal is usually accomplished with physical operations such as screening and sedimentation. The effluent from primary treatment will ordinarily contain considerable organic matter and will have relatively high BOD.treatment plants using only primary treatment will be phased out in the future as implementation of the EPA secondary treatment requirements is completed. Rare instances (for those communities having a secondary treatment waiver)will primary treatment be used as the sole method of treatment .the principal function of primary treatment will continue to be as a precursor to secondary treatment . * Conventional secondary wastewater treatment: The secondary treatment is directed principally toward the removal of bio degradable organics and suspended. Disinfection is included frequently in the definition of conventional secondary treatment is defined as the combination of processes customarily used for the removal of these constituents and includes biological treatment by activated sludge fixed film reactors, or lagoon systems and sedimentation. Ã · Advanced wastewater treatment/wastewater reclamation: Advanced wastewater treatment is defined as the level of treatment required beyond conventional secondary treatment to removing constituents of concern including toxic, nutrients, compounds, and larger amounts of organic material and suspended solids .In addition to the nutrient removal processes, unit operations or processes frequently employed in advanced wastewater treatment are chemical coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by filtration and multi grade filter and also activated carbon filter. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972). 6. STP BASED ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS: 6.2 Principle: A Rotating biological contactor (RBC) is constructed of bundles of plastic packing attached radically to a shaft, forming a cylinder of media .the shaft is placed contour bottomed tank so that the media are submerged approximately 40 percent. the contactor surfaces are spaced so that during submergence in wastewater can enter the voids in the packing .when rotated out of the tank ,the liquid trickles out of the voids in the packing. when rotated out of the tank the liquid trickles out of the voids between surfaces and is replaced by air. A fixed film biological growth, similar to that on a trickling filter packing, adheres to the media surfaces. Alternating exposure to organics in the wastewater and oxygen in the air during rotation distributor. Excess the biomass sloughs from the media and is carried out in the processes effluent for gravity separation. A treatment system consists of primary sedimentation preceding and final sedimentation following the rotating biological contactors. Since the recirculation through RBC units is not normally practiced, only sufficient underflow from the final clarifier is returned to allow removal of excess of the biological solids in primary sedimentation and waste sludge similar to the character to the from trickling filter plant ,in withdrawn from the primary clarifiers disposal of waste. In large type of plants, a common shaft is placed over a contoured tank with the wastewater flow parallel to the shaft. A series of four stages are normally installed in the treatment of domestic wastewater for BOD reduction. additional stages may be added to initiate nitrification .Each stage acts as a completely mixed chamber and the movement of the wastewater through the series of tanks simulates plug flow. Biological solids washed off of the media are transported hydraulically under the baffles to be carried out with the effluent.RBC units are protected by installation either in a building with adequate ventilation or under separate plastic covers lined with insulation. The efficiency of BOD removal of in the processing domestic wastewater is based on empirical data from operating RBC plants. the Mathematical equations also have been developed ,but their prediction of the performance is not consistently reliable. the typically recommendations for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater to produce an effluent of less than 30 mg/l of BOD and also 30mg/l of suspended solids. (Mark J.Hammer Mark J.Hammer,Jr, 1996) TECHNICAL DETAILS OF RBC: DESCRIPTION MOC / MAK 1. Polymer sheet die 2m x 2 thk special polymer from Germany 2. RBC Trough poly propylene /FRP 3. RBC Support MS Resin Coated 4. Geared Motor (0.75HP) FLENDER 5. Input Coupling Love Joy 6. Drive Support Mild Steel 7. Bush Nylon 8. Shaft SS304 TANK SCHEDULE OF RBC : The following tanks used in sewage treatment plant based Rotating Biological contactor Processes. 1. Bar screen 2. Collection Tank 3. PIT 1,2,3 4. Flow divider 5. Sludge drying bed 6. Semi Treated water tank 7. Multi grade sand filter 8. Activated carbon filter 9. Treated water tank EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE The following equipments used in sewage treatment plant based Rotating Biological contactor processes. DESCRIPTION MODEL/HP QTY RBC 0.75 hp 1 Submersible Pump 1 Hp 2 Submersible Pump (Lamella) 1 Hp 1 Filter feed submersible pump 3 Hp 2 7. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR PROCESS(60 KILO LITRE PER DAY): 2D 8. WATER CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT: Raw sewage characteristics: Domestic waste water: The volume of a wastewater from a community varies from 50 to 250 gal capital per day depending on the sewer system uses. A common values for domestic wastewater flow is 120 gpcd means 450 liter person per day use, which assumes that the residential waste water have modern water using appliances, such as automatic washing machines. the organic substances matter contributed per person per day in domestic wastewater is approximately 0.24 lb to 110gram of suspended solids and 0.20lb and 90 gram of BOD in communities where a substantial portion of the household kitchen wastes is designed is discharged to the sewer system through garbage grinders. In selection of data for design, the quantity of and organic strength of wastewater should be based on actual measurements taken through the year to account for variations resulting from seasonal climatic changes and other factors. the average values during the peak month may be used for design ,excluding un usual infiltration and inflow, the av erage daily sanitary wastewater flow during the maximum month of the year is commonly 20 to 30 percent greater than the average annual daily flow, excluding seasonal industrial wastes, the average daily BOD load from sanitary wastewater during the maximum month is greater than the annual ave
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
California Love Do you have any interest in politics? Could you lay your hands on $3,500? Would you be able to attain 65 signatures from registered voters? If you answered yes to these three questions, then congratulations, you are qualified to enter the race to run the fifth largest economic empire in the world. All the more power to you my friend. If you are not already aware, my home state of California is undergoing civic pandemonium disguised in political rhetoric as a Ã¢â¬Å"recall.Ã¢â¬ We are witnessing one of the biggest travesties in the modern era and poor Gray Davis is clearly the victim. Given the circumstances when he took office, Davis has done a pretty damn good job with the mess he inherited from former Governor Pete Wilson. Davis is surrounded by malevolent bureaucrats on a day-to-day basis, as is true for most politicians, and when one has to work with these bad guys, bad things tend to happen. Why is this? California is dealing with the fallout from an inefficient federal government that left its western daughter to flounder in the wake of a crisis the feds very likely created. When Wilson pushed for de-regulation of energy distribution (electricity/gas), outside suppliers, primarily Texas ringleaders like Enron, were allowed to run wholesale pricing up unchecked. Pacific Gas and Electric then filed for ban kruptcy, Southern California Edison was similarly affected. Now layer on surplus spending from dot.com tax coffers and the inability of legislators to rein in spending after the collapse of the dot.com industries due to their greed or bury-the-head-in-the-sand mentality. Now you have a reversal of a record surplus to a record deficit of some 35+ billion dollars. Prime fodder for the Republicans. Whenever there is a great deal of power, you will find a great deal of attention, greed and controversy. In the political arena, parties will strive for stability and control to maintain their power. So, is this recall really a street-smart reaction by Republicans, or is there a connection between California's recent foibles and a Republican conspiracy to regain stability and control? My congratulations go out to Mr. Bush for once. Perhaps he actually does know what he's doing. Perhaps he can push his personal agenda and look totally innocent. Knowing how much California would suffer financially, he couldn't have had any connection to the demise of Enron and WorldCom, could he? No ... certainly he didn't plan this crisis to rid California of its apparent cause, Gray Davis, did he?
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Sleep terrors are commonly known by a few terms, including sleep terrors, night terrors, sleep terror disorder, and pavor nocturnus. The person having a sleep terror will awaken from a dream crying or screaming, which may last for minutes. The person is difficult to awaken and confused. There is no recollection of the dream once awake. Sometimes the person can be violent by swinging their fists or punching. This paper will look in depth at sleep terrors and give a concise review of the causes, prevalence, treatment, symptoms, and safety measures in the sleep lab when dealing with sleep terrors. Definition The definition of sleep terrors is Ã¢â¬Å"a sleep disorder involving abrupt awakening from sleep in a terrified stateÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). Ã¢â¬Å"The cause is unknown but night terrors are commonly associated with periods of emotional tension, stress, or conflictÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005). Overview To understand sleep terrors, you first need to understand normal sleep patterns. Ã¢â¬Å"Normal sleep cycles involve distinct stages from light drowsiness to deep sleepÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). These include REM and non-REM sleep. Non-REM sleep involves four stages. The normal sleeping person will have several cycles of REM and non-REM sleep through the night. Night terrors occur during deep sleep, which occurs during stages 3 and 4 of non-REM sleep, beginning approximately 90 minutes after falling asleep (Connelly, 2003) and they generally have a duration of 10 to 20 minutes. The patient usually screams in panic, but there is no memory of what caused them to be scared. (Kiriakopoulos, 2005) Sleep terrors are like nightmares but with certain distinct differences. Nightmares normally occur during REM sleep vs. sleep terrors occurring during deep sleep. Nightmares are most common in the early morning vs. sleep terrors occurring during the first one-third of the night. The sleeper can remember the details of a nightmare vs. a sleep terror, which cannot be remembered. Sleep terrors are not normal, but Ã¢â¬Å"nightmares are normal on occasion, especially after frightening movies/TV shows or emotional situationsÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). Ã¢â¬Å"The sleep disorder of night terrors typically occurs in children aged 3-12 years, with a peak onset in children aged 3? yearsÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2005, p. 1). Boys, girls, and children of all races are equally affected by sleep terrors. An estimated 1-6% of children experience night terrorsÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2005,p. 1). Sleep terrors can be familiar. By adolescence, most children have outgrown sleep terrors. (Connelly, 2005) Sleep terrors can run in families. Although uncommon, adults may have sleep terrors but they are associated Ã¢â¬Å"with emotional tension and/or the use of alcoholÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). Although sleep terrors are Ã¢â¬Å"not directly caused by a general medical condition or substance use, including medications and drugs of abuse, these symptoms cause clinically important distress or impair work, social or personal functioningÃ¢â¬ (Narcolepsy Association UK, 2003). Diagnosis Ã¢â¬Å"Usually, a complete history and a physical examination are sufficient to diagnose night terrorsÃ¢â¬ (Connolly, 2003, p. 6). Review of symptoms is necessary for accurate diagnosis of all sleep disorders. In many cases, considering the symptoms, no tests are necessary. (Kiriakopoulos, 2005) It is important to rule out seizure disorders and nightmares when making the differential diagnosis of sleep terror. (Narcolepsy Association UK, 2003) This may include an electroencephalogram (EEG) which measures brain activity and can rule out a seizure disorder, or a sleep study to rule out other sleep disorders. Other tests such as CT Scans and MRIÃ¢â¬â¢s are unnecessary. (Connelly, 2003) The cause is unknown. Sleep terrors are frequently brought on by Ã¢â¬Å"stress, fever, sleep deprivation, and medications that affect the central nervous systemÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2003, p. 2). Symptoms Symptoms of sleep terrors include sudden awakening from sleep. Ã¢â¬Å"During each episode the patient shows evidence of marked fear and autonomic arousal, such as rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat and sweatingÃ¢â¬ (Narcolepsy Association UK, 2003). When awakened from the sleep terror, the person is difficult to comfort and is unable to explain what happened or recall the dream, though they may have a sense of being frightened. Ã¢â¬Å"They will have no memory of the event on awakening the next dayÃ¢â¬ Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). Thankfully, sleep terrors generally only occur once per night. (Narcolepsy Association UK, 2003) Treatment, Prognosis, And Prevention There is no true treatment for sleep terrors. It is important to Ã¢â¬Å"educate the family about the disorder and reassuring them that the episodes are not harmfulÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2003, p. ). Ã¢â¬Å"Comfort and reassurance are the only treatment requiredÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). It is important for parents of children with sleep disorders to take the following precautions. Ã¢â¬Å"Make the childÃ¢â¬â¢s room safe to prevent the child from being injured during an episode, eliminate all sources of sleep disturbance, and maintaining a consistent bedtime routin e and wake-up timeÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2003, p. 7). When medication is used, it is benzodiazepine or benadryl given just prior to or at bedtime. These medications will reduce sleep terrors. Although rare, Ã¢â¬Å"in severe cases, in which daily activities (for example, school performance or peer or family relations) are affectedÃ¢â¬ (Connelly, 2003, p. 8), the person may require antidepressant therapy. Ã¢â¬Å"Minimizing stress or using coping mechanisms may reduce night terrors. The number of episodes usually decreases after age 10Ã¢â¬ (Sheth, 2005, p. 1). Most children outgrow night terrors. When this does not occur, Ã¢â¬Å"stress reduction and/or psychotherapy may be helpful for sleep terror in adultsÃ¢â¬ (Kiriakopoulos, 2005, p. 1). Ã¢â¬Å"Night terrors may also be treated with hypnosis and guided imagery echniquesÃ¢â¬ (Narcolepsy Association UK, 2003, p. 1). There are also support groups available. Role of the Polysomnographic Technologist The sleep technologist is responsible for the patient during the polysomnography study. The technologist needs to have reviewed the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s questionnaire and be prepared for the outburst and confusion that may occur during a sleep terror event. The technologist needs skills to comfort and protect the patient during a terror. The patient may be combative so the technologist would need to be able to protect the patient and any near him from hitting and punching that could occur. It would be important to be able to gently restrain them so they are both comforted and safe. Polysomnographic Record Of A 3 Year Old With Sleep Terror Disorder Summary/Conclusion Sleep terror disorder is a sleep disorder that involves waking from deep sleep in a panic. The person is difficult to arouse and confused. If they can recall any of the dream at that time, when they wake then next day, they will not remember that the terror even occurred. The disorder occurs mostly in young children before their teen years begin. Most children out grow the disorder, but some adults are affected. Diagnosis is simple, requiring few tests. Treatment is mostly supportive requiring education of the family and comfort of the individual with the sleep terror disorder. In rare cases, psychotherapy and/or counseling may be necessary if it affect the persons daily functioning and relationships. Sleep terrors are very interesting to me. I have never even known anyone with terrors, and but the prevalence is enough that most people should know someone with the disorder. Although the diagnosis is usually easy, the sleep technologist has a role in the diagnosis when more than the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s symptoms are needed.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Geography Homework Help 4 Introduction Hooks to Make Your Audience Listen to You Geography Homework Help: 4 Introduction Hooks to Make Your Audience Listen to You What is the most important part of an essay? A hook! The introduction to an essay must be interesting and leave a reader wanting to know more. So, they will keep reading to the end. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve come for some geography homework help with this matter, then, keep on reading! Have you ever read the first page of a book or the first paragraph of a story and stopped understanding if it was destined for you? We all have! This is why the first part of your essay is so important. If your professor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel this way and is intrigued to keep going, then, you will earn a better grade! There are a few good ways to attract readers grab some examples! 1.Ã Use an Interesting Stat That Relates to Your Topic Ã¢â¬ËCanada has 561 lakes.Ã¢â¬â¢ The fact that draws readersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention must be impactful or surprising. Many things that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know are surprising. You want your reader to know that they will learn something new. Giving them a fact stirs up their interest and leaves them wanting to see where you are going with your data. 2. Say Something Controversial Ã¢â¬ËChina needs to abolish their one-child policy in order for their cultural survival.Ã¢â¬â¢ Bringing up an issue that seems controversial will undoubtedly meet with a reaction. It really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what kind of reaction it is because that reaction is something that will make your audience listen to you. They will want to hear your arguments in order to solidify their beliefs or hear them find loopholes to argue against. Either way, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve won! 3. Be Blunt Ã¢â¬ËIn this essay, you will discover the little-known mystery of how North America came into being.Ã¢â¬â¢ Sometimes, stating a content of your paper will be good enough to make everyone want to listen. In this case, the hook is already taken care of! Just state what you intend to talk about, and you can also add what you expect a reader to gain from it. 4. Make it Personal Ã¢â¬ËSeeing a washed-up bag during my latest visit to the beach got me thinking about how items can travel across oceans and what that means for different civilizations. Although it is rare in academic writing, you can get away with using the first person if you do it very seldom. A bit of a personal anecdote or background can be a great hook because it makes readers connect with an author. It is an unusual way to begin a formal homework assignment. Do it carefully and make sure it fully corresponds! Though there are many ways to grab attention. Using a statistic, a strong opinion, being upfront, or speaking from the heart are all good ways of guiding your reader naturally into what you really want to say. They will soon be captivated! There is no better feeling than writing something that people truly enjoy reading. As a matter of fact, our expert writers can provide you with outstanding-quality custom homework writing on any geography topic.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Behavioural based safety strategy Abstract Behavioural based safety strategy ). The safety management systems currently implemented within organisations generally are centred on policies, procedures, objectives, processes such as risk assessment, hazard identification the use of various safety tools such as JSAÃ¢â¬â¢s and the wearing of personal protective equipment, or PPE, and focus on measuring compliance against key targets and objectives. This dissertation examines how Behaviour Based Safety, or BBS, aids in the drive to prevent accidents and boost overall employee development (Lebbon, Sigurdsson and Austin, 2012). Qatar holds the position of second smallest country in the Arabian Peninsula after the island state of Bahrain. QatarÃ¢â¬â¢s population currently stands at 2.04 million of Development Planning and Statistics, 94 per cent of which are foreign nationals (Qsa.gov.qa., 2014). Of this 94 per cent the majority is low-paid migrant workers. This number is expected to rise significantly in the coming years primarily due to the coming 2020 World Cup and the need for an influx of foreign labour for the booming construction requirement associated with it (Qsa.gov.qa., 2014). These migrant workers will primarily work on critical construction projects, drastically increasing the need for an effective safety program to be in place. The country has grown in a record breaking manner in the last ten years, to become the wo rldÃ¢â¬â¢s highest per capita GDP National (Fromherz, 2013). This achievement is primarily based on the vast resources of oil and gas discovered in the country. As a consequence of this discovery, construction of mega production plants has been the main focus of development in the country. This level of construction indicates an influx of safety challenges requiring an up to date and efficient method of implementation. These projects have historically required vast numbers of multi-cultural and diverse workforces, coming from different parts of the world (Orr, 2008). This being the case there are many challenges and great difficulties in bringing about a consciousness of safe work practices and in instilling a positive safety culture (Fromherz, 2013). The recognition of the need for workplace safety publicly materialized in the work of Mr Heinrich, an Assistant Superintendent of the Engineering and Inspection Division of Travellers Insurance Company during the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s (Heinrich, 1959). His position required an investigation into the high and rising rate of supervisor accident reports during the period .This report revolutionized the working world by concluding that 88% of industrial accidents were primarily caused by unsafe, possibly preventable acts (Heinrich, 1959). This transformative moment in safety strategy motivated an entire industry to introduce reform (Fogarty and Shaw, 2010). Prior to these period witnessed steadily decreasing standards of working conditions that led to the need to reform the system. Heinrich (1959) subsequently published his first book in 1931; Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach, laying out a more systematic approach to the study of accident data. This indicat ion of a willingness to embrace change was tempered by the overwhelming capacity that big business interests had to keep costs low, creating a volatile safety environment. The modern era has maintained that safety is significant concern for companies, often requiring a considerable fraction of their overall revenue stream (Fromherz, 2013). This drive to increase performance and reduce injury has resulted in many companies showing excellent improvement in the area of safety performance, thereby reducing cost and increasing productivity. The rationale for this research rests on assessing the potential for improvement of HSE performance in the Oil and Gas sector, specifically in the Middle East; through a means of behavioural based safety. The intention of the study is to establish the appropriateness of this hypothesis, whether as a process to be used as a standalone mechanism, or additionally, for the augmentation of an existing HSE management system. Behaviour based safety concept, or BBS, has beenÃ considered in industry worldwide for around a decade as a means to achieve a positive safety culture and an improved organizational safety performance (M ohr, 2011). An organisations culture can be as influential in achieving good safety results as a safety management system. The positive or negative safety culture of an organisation is directly linked to human factors and the positive behaviour of its workforce (Mohr, 2011). According to Books (1999), the largest influences on safety culture are; 1) the style and management commitment; 2) the involvement of employees; 3)training and competence; 4)ability to communicate at all levels; 5) compliance with procedures; and 6)organisational learning. The current research has affiliation with an earlier study conducted as part of the Post Graduate Diploma award (Turner, 2013). The subject of the previous research was Ã¢â¬Å"Safety Culture or Climate: An Appraisal of Perceptions and ScaleÃ¢â¬ . This research sought to measure the health and safety, culture and climate of the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s employer organisation. In this case the researcher determined that there was evidence of a positive safety culture within the XXXX Group of companies. However, this research also illustrated that this positive safety culture has not entirely achieved the expected and desired outcome of zero harm to people. All these factors in themselves do not prevent injuries from continuing to occur within the organisation. The previous study and current research focuses on the Middle East region. In particular to the varying needs and challenges faced by operations based in the region; specifically those that require the engagement of personnel from a vast array of differing backgrounds and cultures and how the principles of behavioural based safety may effectively be used to influence this specific workgroup. To facilitate understanding, it is also important to outline the distinctiveness of the location, (Qatar), the demographics of the workgroup, and the difficulties and challenges related to the management of such a work group within a safe work environment. Based on the above reasoning this affords the researcher the ideal incentive to both address the topic as an area of research for the required dissertation element in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Postgraduate MSc Degree in Health, Safety Risk Management and to make recommendations that will enable XXXX Group to continue its safety culture development journey; that is, towards a more safety aware, proactive and empowered workforce; ultimately leading to an overall improvement in the safety performance results attained 1.2 Aims Objectives This dissertation research focuses on the potential for improvement of HSE performance in the Oil and Gas sector, specifically in the Middle East; through a means of behavioural based safety. It is evident from recent research that traditional methods of safety management, such as safety management systems and risk assessments, do not wholly protect employees from incidents and injuries, as such organisations are looking for an alternative approach to improve performance and eradicate injury from the workplace, therefore the aim of this project is The following aim has been developed in order to meet this goal of this research: Critically evaluate existing research into behavioural based health and safety strategies, programmes and model with a view to identify a best practice model for future implementation. Objectives: The objectives of the research are as follows: 1) To critically analyse available literature and research studies pertaining to behavioural based health and safety. 2) To ascertain employee perceptions. 3) To identify best practices and success rates of behavioural based safety programmes. 4) To evaluate performance improvement. 5) Determine an appropriate behavioural approach for Labour safety in Qatar. 1.3 Research Questions In order to fully develop this dissertation the following questions will be considered by this research: 1) What is behavioural based safety and how does it impact Qatar? 2) Which elements of the behavioural based safety process are suited for Qatar? 3) What is the best method of behavioural based safety implementation for Qatar? 4) How to assess behavioural based safety effectiveness in the workplace? 1.4 Scope of this research This research examines safety perception and behavioural application from 2000 until 2014 in order to ascertain the best possible elements for future implementation. With a national focus on Qatar this research incorporates studies conducted in similar environments and conditions internationally in order to gain insight for these research objectives. 1.5 Structure of the Dissertation This dissertation will consist of an Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology and Analysis, followed by Discussion/Conclusion. 2 Literature review 2.1 Overview Ã¢â¬Å"BBS is about everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, not just the frontlineÃ¢â¬ (Agnew Ashworth, 2012:1). 3 Methodology / Analysis 4 Discussion/Conclusion 5 References Agnew, J. 2012. Behaviour based Safety.Ã Performance management magazine, 1 (1), p. 1. Books, H. 2009. Reducing error and influencing behaviour. New York, NY. Fogarty, G. J. and Shaw, A. 2010. Safety climate and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: Towards the prediction of unsafe behaviour.Ã Accident Analysis \ Prevention, 42 (5), pp. 14551459. Fromherz, A. J. 2013. Qatar: Politics and the Challenges of Development by Matthew Gray (review).Ã The Middle East Journal, 67 (4), pp. 649651. Greene-Roesel, R., Washington, S., Weir, M., Bhatia, R., Hague, M., Wimple, B. 2013. Benefit cost analysis applied to behavioural and engineering safety countermeasures in San Francisco, California. Heinrich, H. W. 1959.Ã Industrial accident prevention. New York: McGraw-Hill. Santos-Reyes, J. and Beard, A. N. 2002. Assessing safety management systems.Ã Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 15 (2), pp. 7795. Lebbon, A., Sigurdsson, S. O. and Austin, J. 2012. Behavioural Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes.Ã Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management, 32 (1), pp. 4457. Mehta, RK.Ã Agnew, MJ. 2013. Exertion-dependent effects of physical and mental workload on physiological outcomes and task performance.Ã The IIE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors,Ã 1(1), 3-5. Mohr, D. P. 2011.Ã Fostering sustainable behaviour. Gabriola, B.C.: New Society Publishers. Orr, T. 2008.Ã Qatar. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. Qsa.gov.qa. 2014.Ã . Welcome to Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics-Statistics sector website :.. [online] Available at: qsa.gov.qa/eng/index.htm [Accessed: 27 Mar 2014].
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Course Review - Essay Example In another wavelength, this methodology also remains very important, given that its standards of evidence and indicators that the program uses helps in comparing the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s performance to its peer institutions. These indicators help in making these comparisons, so as to uphold the highest of standards. The changes that have been proposed are very recommendable on several grounds. First, it is through these proposed PLO systems that important values relevant to the discipline can be inculcated. Skills, knowledge and competence are some of these values that are bound to be deeply entrenched, should PLO systems be implemented. Likewise, it is only by adopting the PLO system that professional and disciplinary standards that certain disciplines try to advance are bolstered. The newly proposed system is also worthy of recommendation since it ensures the maintenance of desired standards by comparing its performance indicators to its peer institutions. This comparison ensures that areas that have not been adequately administered, taught or effected are identified, and then followed through with correctional measures. This smoothens and facilitates effective and tenable transition. The PLO curriculum can be said to be very appropriate, given that they reflect current trends, debates, technology and developments that are taking shape in the discipline. Similarly, the PLO system involves the use of curriculum maps which support learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement and thereby helping in sustaining the required breadth and depth of the study. The same also helps capture the flow, courses, coherence and the sequencing of opportunities for these learners. This thereby helps these learners to achieve the aims of PLOs. As Wang advances, the PLO curriculum will be very instrumental in helping to keep up with the changing times. This is because the PLO curriculum considers and adopts the latest technology, developments and trends