Saturday, December 28, 2019

Discuss the Purpose and Function of Art - 721 Words

What is the purpose and function of art? Art plays a large role in our everyday life. It has a heavy impact on our different cultures countries around the world. With the different countries there are different forms of art. These forms of art are some people lives. Some people enjoy art as a hobby; some make a living from art. It is just involved in so many of our daily lives. Art enhances our creativity. It also allows your curiosity explore. For the fact that art is so versatile everyone can learn, enjoy art for what it means to them. There are many functions and purpose of art like for instance. The beauty of art most arties paint with their religion and or there believes rather if they are Catholic or Christen. Many artiest paint†¦show more content†¦Art can also be seen as creating beauty. The idea of beauty, like that of truth, is challenged by the modern era. At one time artist were expected to portray perfection, lofty and noble ideas of beauty. For example, the Apollo Belvedere if the artist would have messed up just a little then the whole sculpture would have been ruined and they would have to scrap it andShow MoreRelatedThe Summative And Formative Models Of Evaluation And Their Organizational Convenient Application777 Words   |  4 Pages The purpose of this paper is to discuss the summative and formative models of evaluation and their organizational convenient application. Reference from mission statement program descriptions from the previous module assignment would be utilized a s an example in this paper. The paper will furnish the research based description of the purposes, members of the audience, information types, and sources of the collection of data which suits summative and formative models of the program evaluationRead MoreAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very1200 Words   |  5 Pagesmodern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very similar. They had cities, a relatively high standard of living, music, arts , religion, writing, and literature.They both developed at the same time . However, they differed in important and some different ways, especially in terms of culture, politics, religion, art and architecture. Also, they have the geography which is their located differently. Egypt lies on the fertile Nile River valley , and desert around itRead MoreRoman Art : A Picture Book By Christine Alexander Essay1497 Words   |  6 Pagesabout for the purpose of identifying their beauty and creation during the time in which they were made. However, there use as and influence as propaganda has not been fully analyzed. While there might be slight hints in artwork created during the republic area, it is not an area on which many historians have addressed in great depth with specific artworks. (explain why they should and how it would help with the greater overall standing of Roman history / Republic) In the book, Roman Art: a pictureRead MoreHigh School And The Neural And Scholastic Benefits Essay1298 Words   |  6 Pagesprofessionals have consistently proven the scholastic benefits of engaging in music, as well as the cognitive development benefits. In this paper I will discuss the correlation between participating in music courses in high school and the neural and scholastic benefits to students. I will also be discussing how bolstering the Hawaii public schools fine arts programs is essential to bettering education on the islands. Background The main focus of this paper will be on the neural and scholastic benefitsRead MoreManagement1102 Words   |  5 Pagesthe art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. Harold Koontz gave this definition of management in his book The Management Theory Jungle. According to Henri Fayol, To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control. Henri Fayol gave this definition of management in his book Industrial and General Administration. Image Credits  © Michael Heiss. According to Peter Drucker, Management is a multi-purpose organRead MoreWhat Values From Traditional And Progressive Philosophies Complement Each Other868 Words   |  4 Pagesthe two philosophies allows for a positive insight to all educational philosophies. Keeping the mind open to these philosophies allow for flexibility and stability in the classroom for schools, teachers and students. In my position statement I will discuss what values from Traditional and Progressive philosophies complement each other. I will also recognize the Existential and Critical Theory philosophies along with their positive aspects. Through this statement I will explain how I believe the philosophiesRead MoreGeographical Location Of Climate Change1405 Words   |  6 Pagesthrough the lens of new archaeological and paleo-environmental data over the course of more than 10,000 years from the Near East to Europe. Key climatic and other events are contextualized with cultural changes and transitions for which the authors discuss when, how, and if, changes in climate and environment caused people to adapt, move or perish. More than this publication of crucial archaeological and paleo-environmental data, however, the volume seeks to understand the social, political and economicRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Figural 1462 Words   |  6 Pages Figural Portray: American Art in Nineteen Centaury The artwork is an aesthetic autonomous expression by someone on something. This means that artwork always has a life of its own that is very separate and different from other affairs of human beings. The artist making the art will always define the purposes and the functions of his/her arts. Sometimes it may be the public or the market of the arts that will define the functions of the arts. Expression by artists through artworkRead MoreHow Learning Areas Such As The Arts And Literacies Are Woven Into An Integrated Curriculum Essay1550 Words   |  7 Pages 1. Discuss how learning areas such as the arts and literacies are woven into an integrated curriculum, with reference to the Aotearoa New Zealand context and Te Whariki (Ministry of education, 1996). Arts and literacies are woven into an integrated curriculum giving children the ability to problem solve, communicate without language and express themselves in a verbal and non-verbal way. A child’s learning development is influenced by their communication with other children and adults, the environmentRead MoreCulture And Cognition Showing Similarities Essay1004 Words   |  5 PagesNeanderthals were a species or subspecies of archaic human. The ancient humans lived in Europe and Asia about 350,000 to 40,000 years ago. It’s said that they disappeared after modern humans crossed into Europe from Africa. This paper will discuss Neanderthal’s culture and cognition showing similarities they have with both us and earlier Homo sapiens. Neanderthal culture wasn’t as symbolic as modern humans had. Neanderthal culture remained comparatively static whereas the up to date Homo sapiens

Friday, December 20, 2019

Factors Affecting The Economy Of Argentina - 1513 Words

Geographic position has played a key role in shaping the economy of Argentina today. Located in South America, bordered by the South Atlantic Ocean, Argentina is situated in a prime location for a boosting economy. Argentina’s geographic location and promotion of innovation has attributed to advancements in areas like trade, population density, innovation and overall economic growth. The temperate climate and its proximity to major water ways allowed for its agricultural exports to thrive and be a key component in its economic development. This had allowed for Argentina’s economy to be able to expand its sectors and to have a great ride in production of other areas to further advance its economy. The production makeup of the country†¦show more content†¦With its diverse array of production sectors, Argentina enjoys a strong economic system. Argentina’s population is made up of mainly urban and rural populations with a total approximate population of 43,886,748 people. The people of the country are not equally distributed throughout the country. Sixty percent of the population lives in the Pampa Region, with a majority of that population living in the Buenos Aires Provence. The rural citizens make up about eight percent of the Argentine population, and its rate is declining as more of its people go to the city. According to the United States Central Intelligence Agency, while the population is growing, it is doing so at a slower rate due to its declining birth rate. Though while the age demographic of people under the age of fifteen is shrinking, with a median age of 31.5 years old, the 15-24 age group is the largest the country has had in its history and bolsters the working age group. Because of such a robust working age group, the country is expected to have an economic boost. Along with a rather large work ing age group, Argentina also has a growing aging population that is projected to make 23.4 percent of the population by 2050. The overall population picture of the country looks promising with its large working age group. Though we must take into account both the declining birth rate and growing aging population. AlongShow MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity : Argentina, Argentina1586 Words   |  7 Pages Childhood Obesity in Buenos Aires, Argentina Malaijah D. Thompson University of California, Los Angeles Childhood Obesity in Buenos Aires, Argentina There are many indicators of poverty. One indicator of poverty is obesity; it mostly affects families in low socioeconomic levels. Obesity has become an epidemic rising across the globe. Recently, childhood obesity is becoming a prevailing problem in the urban areas in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Argentina’s rates are rising at a levelRead MoreLatin American Culture Essay examples1050 Words   |  5 PagesLatin American Culture Latin America represents 1/10 of the worlds population, and geographically can be located from the land extensions of Mexico, until the Patagonia at Argentina. Some of the most relevant elements of todays culture in Latin America are; Religion, Values, Attitudes, Social structure, Social stratification, Language and Gift-giving hospitality. The predominant religion throughout history in Latin America has been Catholicism. From big cities to small villages, churches, basilicasRead MoreVenezuel A Powerful Member State1378 Words   |  6 Pagespowerful member state because of its size, its highly industrialized society, and a GPD comparable to that of Argentina and Brazil.† It also has the â€Å"second largest export sector of all Latin American countries and the largest oil and gas reserves in Latin America.† These factors equip Venezuela with sufficient power to affect the Mercosur agenda and rival the influence of Argentina and Brazil. The Argentinian government, l ed by President Cristina Kirchner, has sympathized with Chavez’s visionRead MoreRostows Theory of Economic Development1055 Words   |  5 Pageseach state. He also said that a country undergoes transitional periods at varying lengths so as to acquire a stabilized economy. He came up with five linear stages of development. These stages include: traditional societies, precondition to take off, take off, and drive to maturity and finally the age of mass consumption. Stage 1: Traditional societies At this stage the economy has a limited production functions thus minimum level of output. However economy’s production level is not static meaningRead MoreThe Rise Of International Trade1283 Words   |  6 Pagesgrown considerably in popularity as, most of present day countries have entered into at least a bilateral or plurilateral trade agreements if not both. The lack of a bilateral trade agreement between the United States and Brazil, the two largest economies in the western hemisphere, derives from personal motivations, political setting and relations, as well as the overall economic development of each country. Literature on trade agreements, not specifically on the relation between those two countriesRead MoreThe Economics of Rising Demand for Corn: Reasons Related to Ethanol and Its Uses1194 Words   |  5 PagesStates The United States corn production and acreage has increased over time due to the growing global demand. Corn is being utilized for food, feed, industr ial uses and ethanol production, but there are many factors that affect the global levels of supply and demand. Because of these factors, the corn industry has had to evolve over the past several decades to meet the increasing demand. (p.1) I. Uses of Grain Presently research for alternative uses of corn is reported as more intensive thanRead MoreBrazil : A Snapshot Of Brazil1168 Words   |  5 Pagesworld) Population (2014) 202,656,788 (5th in the world) GDP (nominal) total $2.215 trillion (7th in the world) GDP (nominal) per capita $11,080 (63rd in the world) Currency Real (R$) Time Zone BRT (UTC−2 to −5) Trading Partners United States, Argentina, Germany, Japan, Italy and Netherlands Main Imports Machinery and equipment, chemical products, oil, automobiles and automobile parts Main Exports Iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, and automobiles Labour Force 53% Services 24% Industry 23%Read More Sherwin-Williams Industry Analysis Essay903 Words   |  4 Pagescurrency exchange and sales in local currency that continued to build during each quarter of 2004. Internationally, Sherwin-Williams is looking forward to the improving economic conditions in South America, and have launched a concept store in Argentina based on the Sherwin-Williams paint store model of merchandising paint, but adapted to fit their local market. Sherwin-Williams currently has 198 automotive outlet stores supplying interior and exterior services. The company saw an increase of aroundRead MoreThe Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops1401 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION: There are a lot of questions concerning the policy of genetically modified crops in India, regarding the approach towards the development of economy, the technological impact on the nation and also the relationships between farming and business communities. The supporting parties of Biotechnology in agriculture argue that the genetically modified crops could be the solution to most of the existing problems in the country’s agriculture; opposing parties argue that it could have negativeRead MorePaginas Amarelas Case Study7428 Words   |  30 PagesMedium and Long Term Growth Rates 4 2.1 Growth in the Telephone Directory Industry 5 2.1.1 Competition 6 2.1.2 Demand for Telephone Lines 9 2.1.3 A Short Summary of the Growth Prospects in the Region 10 2.2 Estimation of the Growth Rates for Argentina 11 2.3 Estimation of the Growth Rates for Brazil 12 2.4 Estimation of the Growth Rates for Chile 13 3 Calculating the Cost of Capital 13 3.1 The Godfrey and Espinosa (1996) Model 14 3.1.1 Determining the Risk Free Rate 15 3.1.2 Determining

Thursday, December 12, 2019

A picture of my wife Essay Example For Students

A picture of my wife Essay As I looked outside the window, the sunlight fell on my face. As it warmed my face; I closed my eyes. All of a sudden it went black under my closed eyelids; my face went cold again. As I opened my eyes I saw black clouds form out of nowhere, blocking the sun. As I looked around I saw a huge black jeep sitting there on the road. I saw them theyre coming! I could hear their footstep thump, thump, thump feet heavy like an elephant. I could feel my heart pounding like Ive ran a mile. Thinking to myself what should I do. Hide? Run away?. There was no time, I had to hide. I run as fast as possible, like a dog chasing behind me. I run upstairs in my room and into my wardrobe leaving a little gap to hear what happens and what they do. Suddenly I hear baam! Theyve broke the door open and started searching for me. I heard them talking for a miniut. Then one of the men says ya two search up their, and we search down here. Its silent. I dont know what to do. Suddenly I hear lots of noises. I knew they started searching for me. I could hear them throwing everything around. All I could hear are really loud noises: Clang! Bang! Boom! Baam! Bhoosh! Did you find anything, asked the one of the men. Nope nothing yet, he shouts back. After a 5 miniut search one of the men comes to my room; I peek through the little gap, and saw him. He was bold, black skinned colour, tall and had muscles like an wrestler. He starts to chucking my things around and looking through my drawers. Maybe he is searching for something, maybe some kind of documents. After two miniut of searching, he spots me, or maybe to check the wardrobe. He slowly walks towards me. My heart is pounding so hard that I think it might explode! He is about to open the door, but theres a loud scream of a girl; he quickly runs downstairs. Now I felt like killing myself. I was scared, angry and in agony pain. I know that scream, even if it came from any part of the world. It was my wife. I dont know what they are going to do to her. I get out of my hiding place and out of the room slowly. I just hear them. Tell me! Tell me where he is, one of the men shouts at her. Tell us or ill blo ya up, another man said this time. I slowly moves forwards to see the situation properly. My whole living room is shattered. Everything is broken My T.V screen is halved, my fridge is upside-down. I see my wife surrounded by the four men. One of the men is pointing a gun at my wifes head and keep asking about me. Tell me where is he, this is da last time im gonna ask ya, tell me or ill blo ya, he shouts and keep hitting he with the gun. I told you I dont know, she cries. I couldnt see her getting hurt, but Im helpless. I didnt notice but I accidentally stepped on a piece of glass and it made a loud noise. All the four men and my wife look up at me. Im thinking to run out as fast as I can, but as I was; something stroke my brain and I saw a picture. A picture of my wife, smiling ad laughing in those happy days we had. The man with the gun at me. Come here now!. he shouts at me. I didnt know what to do He shouts again come here now or Ill shoot her!. I slowly walk downstairs avoiding the shattered glasses on the stairs. While keeping my hands up. When I got next to them; they throw my wife on the floor grabbed me and beat me soft like clay. Those bastards beat me till my face is full of blood. .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .postImageUrl , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:hover , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:visited , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:active { border:0!important; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:active , .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017 .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u16ec9e7cf31198e2ac0720270bdf9017:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Three Major Concept of Drawing EssayI dont know how, but after a long time I gain my consciousness. Everything is blurry. I look around My face is a river of blood. I see my wife crying her lungs out. Near the broken door, the four men are standing and talking to each other. I slowly try to stand up, but one of the men kicked me back to the floor. Then two men came and each hold one of my hand and dragged me outside. My wife came running and tried to stop them. Please, please dont do this. Let him go forgive him, please, she cried. The third men came and slapped her and thrower her back. I was helpless. I felt like doing a lot of things to them; but I couldnt. They keep dr agging me until they reach the jeep and dropped me next to it. I was thinking this is it, its the end of me. I saw her; on her knees, crying and crying. I looked around and saw people closing their doors and windows. Even my best friend Michel look at me and close the door. After all I did for him and this is how he repays back. By this time its raining hard, and I was soaking wet. The blood washed away from my face. The men were talking to someone on the phone. I could only hear the roaring rainfall. I remembered all those good time we had. When we were having our yam. We went out for a holiday and she was really happy. I close my eyes with her smiling face in my eyes. After a long time, Im in agony pain because theyve tied me hard. They pick me up and throw me inside the jeep; and slam the door. As they all get in I watch my wife cry and cry. The man who is sitting next to me calls someone. He says Yh we got him. What shell I do wive him? Mmhha. Mmhha. After talking for a miniut he starts putting a big belt around my stomach. After a while he started pressing buttons on the belt; by this time I knew what it was. A bomb! By this time they were driving around 80mph. He opened the door next to me and was holding a knife. I knew what he was going to do. I smiled at him; closed my eyes and remembered the good times I had. Then suddenly

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Effective Motivational Techniques in the Hospitality Industry Nowadays

Question: Explore the issues that are faced in the hospitality industry in recent times. There are several factors that can affect the satisfaction level of the employees in the hospitality sector. Thus correlation among the satisfaction level and these factors are established here and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the analysis. Various recommendations are also provided in the research report? Answer: Introduction Rationale: In recent economic scenario, there has been increased competition in each and every industry. After the globalisation, the interconnectedness among the economies has increased significantly. Thus the transfer of goods and services has increased along with the financial resources in the industry. It is known that the hospitality industry is also flourishing in recent times but there are certain issues that are seen in this industry as well (Tang, 2012). It is known that the industry is affected by economic downturns and thus the employment sector also suffers in the economy. Thus it can be said that there are job issues in the industry. On the other hand there are also issues with the acquisition of skills that are necessary in the industry and thus job issues are evident in the industry (Pelit, ztrk and Arslantrk, 2011). It is also evident that there can be various issues that may be faced by human resource in the industry. Aims: The main aim of this research is to evaluate the issues that are faced by the human resource in the hospitality industry. Objectives: The main objectives are, Reviewing the literature regarding the issues that can be faced by human resource Analysing theories regarding good performance of employees at workplace Presenting how the issues can be resolved in the industry Collection of data and performing analysis Conclusion and recommendation Literature Review: It is known that work involvement, satisfaction and motivation are very important in order to achieve success in an industry. There are certain issues that are evident in the hospitality sector by the human resource. These can be discussed here. Turnover is one of the problems that are faced in the hospitality sector. Here it can be said that employee motivation can be one of the causes for the issues related with turnover. On the other hand low wage rates in the industry can also lead to low turnover. People may choose to move to different industries and thus the problem is faced. Recruitment is another issue that is faced in the industry as skilled employees are required in the industry (Anshori and Langner, 2007). Proper training must be provided to the employees and this is another issue faced in the industry. Here the two factor theory of Hertzberg can be discussed here. The two factors are known as the motivators and the hygiene factors. Motivating factors are those factors are intrinsic to the job like the nature of job, personal goals etc (Sharma, 2006). On the other hand the hygiene factors are external factors of the organisation like working conditions, policies of the company, wage rate etc. Methodology: It is very important to get an insight in the topic that has been researched here. It is evident that there are job issues that are seen in the hospitality industry. Journal articles, newspapers, reports and books are also researched in order to get the insight about the topic in details. Here the job issues that are faced by human resource in the hospitality industry can be discussed. For the research study only secondary research has been conducted and findings are drawn from the secondary research. It can be said that, here both the qualitative and quantitative research is required (S.Margabandhu and Dr. M.G.Saravanaraj, 2011). In the research report that is conducted in Taiwan, the structural investigation of the relationship between the employee turnover the work satisfaction of the employees in the hospitality industry has been assessed. A survey was conducted in order to correlate between the variables and more than 100 questionnaires were distributed among the staffs of the hotel (Chen, Wang and Chu, 2010). Here another study that has been undertaken by Anantha Raj Arokiasamy regarding the employee satisfaction in the hospitality industry in Malaysia. In this research, the study was conducted for examining the relationship between the work environment, job security and rewards with the satisfaction of the employees (Arokiasamy, 2013). In order to assess the impact, the responses of 127 employees from three star hotels were collected. In order to collect the data, a survey questionnaire has been prepared and the data is collected for establishing the results. After that a multiple regression analysis is done for finding the correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (Arokiasamy, 2013). Analysis Discussion: It is known that there are constant changes occurring in the hospitality industry. There are various issues that are seen in the hospitality industry. Here the findings of the secondary research can be discussed. The outcome of the first statistical analysis in the hotels of Taiwan the questionnaire was prepared for analysing the correlation between the employee satisfaction and the turnover. The impact of job satisfaction has been assessed here. There were 100 questionnaires are distributed among the staff members of the hotel. Among them only 40 responses were received. That means the response rate is 40% (Chen, Wang and Chu, 2010). It is found from the research that the satisfaction of the employees is also related with the expectations of the employees at the workplace. Here it is found that the age is positively correlated with the work satisfaction. It is found that older people are more satisfied at workplace than the younger people as younger ones tend to seize new things and they have high expectation. It is also seen that married employees are more satisfied at their job than the unmarried people (Verma, 2011). The educational level of the employees is another factor that can affect the satisfaction level. It was found that more educated employees are comparatively dissatisfied at their job. It was also found that the employees of the hotel were satisfied with their remuneration programmes and the policies and benefits that are provided to them (Chen, Wang and Chu, 2010). In the second research report, the relationship between the employee satisfaction and the other organisational factors has been identified. In the research 180 questionnaires were distributed and 155 responses were collected. So the response rate was 81.93 (Arokiasamy, 2013). The demographic characteristics of the respondents were also taken into account. Here the correlation of job satisfaction was established with respect to certain independent variables which are job security, rewards compensation, career development and work environement. First the responses were collected and then they were measured in the likert scale. The responses were then assessed with the help of SPSS software (Arokiasamy, 2013). It is found that the independent variables that are job security, rewards compensation, career development and work environment are all positively correlated with job satisfaction. It is also found that in the hospitality industry job security has significant positive correlatio n with job satisfaction (Tang, 2012). Conclusion Recommendation: In conclusion it can be said that in recent times, there are various issues that are faced in the hospitality industry for the employees. The issues faced by the employees are discussed in the research report. Here the correlation between the job satisfaction and other factors that can influence the satisfaction of the employees are discussed. Here is found that various factors affect the satisfaction level of the employees at the hospitality industry and thus measures should be taken to optimise the satisfaction level so that employee turnover can be improved along with the efficiency and productivity. Here several recommendations can be provided on the basis of the research findings. It can be said that in the hospitality industry, the policies should comply with the interest of the employees. The working condition of the hotel, employee rewards and benefits along with the wage rate should be improved so that it can increase the satisfaction level of the employees. The organisation should also provide effective training to the employees so that the work efficiency can be increased. References Anshori, Y. and Langner, V. (2007). THE IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND SUPREME SERVICE PROVISION IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF SURABAYA PLAZA, 3(1). Arokiasamy,, A. (2013).A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION PERSPECTIVES IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 22 Jan. 2015]. Chen, Y., Wang, W. and Chu, Y. (2010).Structural Investigation of the Relationship between Working Satisfaction and Employee Turnover. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at:,%20Ying-Chang.pdf [Accessed 22 Jan. 2015]. Pelit, E., ztrk, Y. and Arslantrk, Y. (2011). The effects of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction.Int J Contemp Hospitality Mngt, 23(6), pp.784-802. S.Margabandhu, S. and Dr. M.G.Saravanaraj, D. (2011). A Study on Customer Satisfaction Towards Hotel Industry in Vellore.IJAR, 4(2), pp.4-2. Sharma, H. (2006).HRM in hospitality industry. Jaipur, India: ABD Publishers. Tang, H. (2012). The Value of Employee Satisfaction.The Journal of Hospitality Financial Management, 20(1), pp.100-100. Verma, N. (2011).HRM in tourism industry. Jaipur: Prateeksha Publications.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

How to Answer Questions about Accomplishments

The goal in answering this kind of question is to analyze rather than summarize an achievement. This advice is particularly true if youre discussing an accomplishment that is listed elsewhere on the application. Your readers want to gain insight into your character—not read a factual summary of what occurred.Here are some guiding principles to use in constructing your answer:Choose something thats meaningful to you.  Some applicants feel obligated to choose the most objectively impressive accomplishments. You should write about something that has personal significance, even if you werent formally recognized for it. What matters is that you write passionately and insightfully about your subject. Unless otherwise specified, you should feel free to draw on academic, personal, or professional successes.Focus on details about the process.  Show the reader through concrete details how you achieved what you did. If you want to discuss a grade you earned in a particularly challeng ing class, show us how you mastered the material. For example, describe creative strategies you used; dont rely on clichà ©s like I succeeded through hard work.Build tension. Describe obstacles and how you overcame them.  Note initial difficulties or intermediate failures, and show how you recovered. By adding a sense of drama to your story, you not only keep the reader interested, but you also make the accomplishment seem that much more significant.Evaluate the significance of the accomplishment.  Again, the goal here is to add insight beyond what the reader knows from the straightforward facts. For example, you can comment on how the accomplishment represents an aspect of your character, or describe how it fits within your background of successes and failures. Dont get carried away, however, and try to draw overly grand lessons. You might discuss external consequences of your actions to convey their magnitude, but ultimately you should stay focused on your personal response.D ont boast or be overly modest.  This is a hard balance to strike, but if you stay focused on the details of your story, then you shouldnt have a problem. Use the details to convey the magnitude of your accomplishment; you should be able to do so sincerely without having to promote yourself. For example, if you can show through illustrative evidence how you influenced the course of someones life, you wont have to make a presumptuous statement about, for example, having a profound impact on the life of another.This applicant  discusses three accomplishments. The first is a professional achievement with specific details both about the difficulties he encountered and the contributions he made. His second accomplishment comes from his involvement in his community. Note that he makes the following unnecessary statement: This experience was remarkable because it afforded me the privilege of making a positive difference in the lives of others. Although this is certainly true, the writer would be better off showing the difference he has made. Nevertheless, the overall account is still strong, because he does return to focus on specific duties he had and results for which he was responsible.His final accomplishment falls under a personal achievement. Note that he is able to avoid sounding boastful by acknowledging but downplaying praise: My act was heralded in the newspapers and recognized by a citation from the highway patrol and the county in which the event occurred, but this hardly equaled the feeling I received from having saved this boys life. Few of us have been involved in saving another persons life, but this story provides a strong model of engaging dramatic narration and effective use of detail. The writer does not need to spend many words evaluating the significance of his story, because the details have already revealed so much to the reader about his character.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Forensic speaker identification Essays

Forensic speaker identification Essays Forensic speaker identification Essay Forensic speaker identification Essay Introduction Forensic talker designation is the application of scientific discipline to work out the jobs related to designation of the unknown talker in condemnable probe. A voice is much more than merely a twine of words. Although grounds from DNA grabs the headlines, but the fact is that DNA ca nt speak. It ca nt be recorded planning, transporting out or squealing to a crime1. The voice of a individual can be successfully used as a biometric characteristic as it is good accepted by the users and can be easy recorded utilizing mikes and hardware of low costs2. It can supply an option, more unafraid agencies of allowing entry without any demand of retrieving a watchword, lock combination etc and therefore, interrupting all limitations of accessing a secured country utilizing keys, magnetic card or any other fallible device which can be easy stolen. In the present epoch, widely available installations of telephones, Mobiles and tape recording equipments consequences in the abuse of the device and therefore, doing them an efficient tool in committee of condemnable offenses such as snatch, extortion, blackmail menaces, obscene calls, anon. calls, torment calls, ransom calls, terrorist calls, lucifer repairing etc. The felons has seen the possibility for abuse of the assorted manners of communicating of voice, believing that he will stay incognito, and therefore, cipher would acknowledge him. It is fortuitously no longer true. The voice can place him and trap the offense on him3. Speaker designation is less complicated and leads to a more definite sentiment when the expert has to cover with the normal or ideal voice acknowledgment. The job arises when the instances of cloaked voice samples, affecting both inadvertent every bit good as attempted camouflage, comes for the intent of designation. There is another facet that makes the accomplishment of this end of talker designation a spot hard i.e. the instance of about similar sounding talkers, sharing the same sex, age and idiom. Address Address is the voice signifier of human communication4. Human existences express their thoughts, ideas and feelings orally to one another through a series of complex motions that alter and mold the basic tone created by voice into specific, decodable sounds5. Speech development is a gradual procedure that requires old ages of pattern. Communication is a procedure, a series of events leting the talker to show ideas and emotions and the hearer to understand them. Speech communicating begins as idea that is transformed into linguistic communication for expression6. : Speech signal is a multidimensional acoustic wave7 ( as shown in fig 1 ) , which conveys the information about the words or message being spoken, individuality of the talker, linguistic communication spoken, the presence and type of address pathologies, the physical and emotional province of the talker. The individual s address besides contains the characteristics that may uncover their geographical beginning, ethnicity or race, age, sex, instruction degree and spiritual orientation and background8, 9, 10. Often, worlds are able to pull out the individuality information when the address comes from a talker they are acquainted with. Address is a compelling biometric for several good known grounds and peculiarly because it is the lone 1 available mode in a big set of situations11 SPEECH MECHANISM AND ITS UNIQUENESS The mechanism of address is a really complex one and to set about analysis of any linguistic communication it is of import to understand the procedures that go to do up the message that a talker transmits and a hearer receives12. For production of any sound, there must be some perturbation in the air. Such perturbation in the address sound is provided by motion of certain variety meats of organic structure such as musculuss of thorax, vocal cords, lingua, lips etc. This perturbation in the signifier of sound moving ridges travels to the ear of the hearer, who interprets the moving ridge as sound. By the procedure of inspiration the air from the environment is drawn into the lungs, stored in the lungs for a short period of clip and eventually expelled from the lungs under force per unit area by the procedure of halitus. During halitus, air under force per unit area is sent from the lungs to the voice box. The map of the voice box, peculiarly that portion known as the vocal creases, is to put the molecules of this breath watercourse into vibration13 ( as shown in fig 2 ) . For sound to be produced, these molecules have to vibrate at a rate that falls within a peculiar scope. The procedure by which molecules of air are set into quiver is known as voice. The quiver form of molecules produced by voice is complex. It contains a broad scope of frequences and has a buzzing sound. This bombilation is moulded into address sounds by vocal piece of land. The vocal piece of land consists of the throat ( pharynx ) , unwritten pit and rhinal pit. The constellation, or form, of the vocal piece of land at a peculiar minute determines what address sound will be produced. The constellation of the vocal piece of land can be changed by motion of several constructions within it specifically, the lingua, lips, lower jaw and soft palate14. Representation of address mechanism For identical voice, the two persons should hold the indistinguishable vocal mechanism and indistinguishable coordination of their articulators, which is least likely. Hence the human voice is alone personal trait. SPEAKER RECOGNITION Speaker acknowledgment may be defined as any activity in which a address sample is attributed to a individual on the footing of its acoustic or perceptual properties15.The information content of a spoken vocalization are talker features, spoken phrase, emotions, extra noise, channel transmutations etc16.It can be divided into Speaker Identification and Speaker Verification. Speaker designation determines which registered talker provides a given vocalization from amongst a set of known talkers. The unknown talker is identified as the talker hose theoretical account best matches the input vocalization. Speaker confirmation accepts or rejects the individuality claim of a talker is the talker the individual they say they are17, 18, 19? In talker acknowledgment, you do nt do the designation by analyzing the linguistic communication used, by retrieving what the talker looks like or by any other agencies. This is sometimes used when a individual is non rather certain whether the procedure is that of confirmation or identification20. In a strategy for the mechanical acknowledgment of the talkers, it is desirable to utilize acoustic parametric quantities that are closely related to voice features that distinguish talkers. It involves choice of such parametric quantities which are which are motivated by known dealingss between the voice signal and vocal-tract forms and gestures21. In talker acknowledgment we differ between low-level and high-ranking information. High level-information is values like a idiom, an speech pattern, the speaking manner, the capable mode of context, phonetics, prosodic and lexical information22. These characteristics are presently merely recognized and analyzed by worlds. The Low-level characteristics are denoted by the information like cardinal frequence ( F0 ) , formant frequence, pitch, strength, beat, tone, spectral magnitude and bandwidths of an person s voice23. An ideal characteristic would: Have lower intraspeaker variableness and high interspeaker variableness Be robust against noise and deformation Occurs often and of course in address Be easy to mensurate from speech signal Difficult to mime Not be affected by talker s wellness or long term fluctuations in voice There are different ways to categorise the characteristics. From the point of view of their physical reading, we can split them into24: Short-run spectral characteristics -These characteristics, as the name suggests, are computed from the short frames of approximately 20 to 30 msecs in continuance. They are normally the forms of the resonance belongingss of the supralaryngeal vocal piece of land. Voice beginning characteristics -These characteristics characterize the glottal excitement signal of sonant sounds such as glottal pulse form and cardinal frequence, and it is sensible to presume that they carry speaker-specific information. Spectro-temporal characteristics -It is sensible to presume that the spectro temporal Signal inside informations such as formant passages and energy transitions contain utile speaker-specific information. Prosodic features Prosody refers to non-segmental facets of address, including syllable emphasis, modulation forms, talking rate and beat. One of import facet of inflection is that, unlike the traditional short-run spectral characteristics, it spans over long sections like syllables, words, and vocalizations and reflects differences in talking manner, linguistic communication background, sentence type and emotion of the talker. High degree characteristics -These characteristics attempt to capture conversation-level features of talkers, such as characteristic usage of words ( uh-huh , you know , oh yeah , etc. ) . Other characteristics are the idiom of any linguistic communication used in the conversation by the talker, speech pattern of the talker and the manner of speech production. DISGUISED SPEECH Any type of change, deformation or divergence from the normal address, irrespective of the cause, is defined as the address camouflage. Disguise can take many signifiers, and can be really detrimental to both ballad every bit good as to proficient talker identification25.The condemnable frequently disguises his or her voice. The consequence of the camouflage is that, the acoustic characteristics of the condemnable example, is altered to go less similar to the acoustic characteristics of the existent felon s undisguised vocalizations. There tended to be two types of research. One type was non-electronic and attempted to mensurate the ability of non-expert worlds to place other worlds who were masking their voice in a assortment of ways. The 2nd type was electronic, frequently affecting speech spectrographs, or alleged voiceprints 26. The inquiry of voice camouflage sensing appears as cardinal in forensic applications. Different sorts of attacks provide important consequences of favoritism. A complementary survey based on formant and automatic analysis could be fused to increase the acknowledgment rate27. MOTIVATION IN STUDYING DISGUISED SPEECH28 By and large, the adept faces two types of challenges while analyzing the questioned. First, cloaked voice is frequently used in the commitment of a offense where the felon has the fright of being caught. Often, it is necessary to place or verify a suspect based on the cloaked voice. Some agencies is needed to: Determine that a voice has been disguised on a voice recording, Determine the method of camouflage Perform computing machine talker designation despite the camouflage. The 2nd challenge is that the talker designation basically is incapable of accurately finding the individuality of a talker when a trial sample of his cloaked address is compared to a mention based on his normal speech production manner. To day of the month, and to the best of our cognition, the above statement remains true. One end of forensic talker acknowledgment is to set about research to change by reversal that state of affairs, at least for a big and utile subset of camouflage types. TYPES OF DISGUISE Disguised address can be of two types: Non- deliberate or inadvertent disguise- This signifier of voice camouflage involves changes that consequence from some nonvoluntary province of the person. The instances of inadvertent camouflage involve the impermanent alteration in individual s address due to alter in physical province like due to masticating, eating and illness or emotional province of individual like emphasis, choler, fright, jitteriness, sunniness, surprise, sadness etc. Research has been done for developing robust and precise automatic talker confirmation system based on these talker based fluctuation in features29. Deliberate or attempted disguise- The samples of attempted camouflage are often encountered in the instances of anon. calls, ransom calls and endangering calls where the talker makes a calculated attempt to alter their voice by altering its phonic, phonemic and prosodic characteristics, in order to conceal their individuality due to the fright of being caught. TECHNIQUES USED FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION In this epoch of telephones, wireless and tape recording equipment communications, the human voice may frequently turn out to be valuable grounds for tie ining an person with condemnable act. The telephoned bomb menace, obscene calls or tape recorded ransom messages have become frequent plenty happenings to justify the involvement of jurisprudence enforcement functionaries in scientific techniques capable of transforming the voice into a signifier suitable for personal identification31. Speaker designation is to find who the talker of the given vocalization is. To make so it is necessary to cognize a great trade about that individual s address feature ( a rare happening ) or to be able to fit the voices of the unknown speaker to one from the group of suspects. Assorted methodological analysiss for nearing the job of talker designation have been proposed. For designation intent, different good recognized criterion techniques will be used for keeping the cogency of the work done and the pick will be as per the demand: 1 ) Listener method or Auditory analysis- The voice of a individual is as easy distinguishable by the ear, as face by the oculus. This method of talker acknowledgment by listening is the oldest amongst all. In this state of affairs a individual attempts to acknowledge a voice by its familiarity32. The extraordinary ability of worlds to acknowledge many familiar people by their voices is exceeding both in truth and adaptability33. In this method, the determination of similarity and unsimilarities is taken by human experts after hearing of address samples. One method is of perennial hearing of the available audio files by a group of experts looking for similarities in lingual, phonic and acoustic characteristics. The different vocalizations of the talkers are segregated in regard of each talker by manner of perennial hearing of recorded conversation. The unintegrated conversations of each talker are repeatedly heard to place lingual characteristics and phonic characteristics like articulation rate, flow of address, grade of vo wels and harmonic formation, beat, dramatic clip, pauses etc. The hint words are selected from both questioned and specimen samples of the talker and are so used for instrumental analysis. Human hearers are robust talker recognizers when presented with the debauched address. Listener public presentation is a map of acoustic variables such as, the signal to resound ratio, address bandwidth, the sum of speech stuff, deformations in the address signals introduced by address cryptography, transmittal systems, etc. This is owing to the fact that there are beginnings of cognition that contribute in assorted ways to speaker acknowledgment ; supplying weak, moderate and high know aparting power. Auditory talker acknowledgment has long been used and accepted in forensics as portion of the testimony of a victim or informant. Prior to the innovations of the telephone and sound recording equipments, it could be the cardinal grounds on behalf of which a suspected person could be identified or excluded from an offense committed in the dark or when a victim has been blindfolded34. However, with any human determination procedure, it is stressed that the hearer method leads to a subjec tive determination. However, this method is still used in some states for forensic talker designation. 2 ) Instrumental analysis or Spectrographic method- The spectrographic method for talker acknowledgment makes usage of an instrument that converts the address signals into a ocular show. Today voice analysis has matured into a sophisticated designation technique, utilizing the latest engineering scientific discipline has to offer. Both aural and spectrographic analyses are combined to organize the decision about the individuality of voice in question35. In 1941, an electro mechanical acoustic spectrograph was developed by Dr. Raleph Potter, Bell Telephone Laboratory, with an thought to change over sounds into pictures36. A sound spectrograph is an instrument which is able to give a lasting record of altering energy-frequency distribution throughout the clip of a address wave37, ( as shown in fig 3 and fig 4 ) . Spectrograms are ocular representations of the speech signal ; they convey information about the message by the talker every bit good as about the talker himself. In this method, the sentiment about similarities or unsimilarities between two samples will be taken on the footing of their phonic and acoustic elements such as, frequences, amplitude, plosive continuance, voiceless signals at different places etc. The sound spectrograph is more normally known as the Voiceprint analyzer. Voice forms are transformed into ocular forms on a graph that moves through an instrument at a controlled velocity, and forms drawn on the paper as it moves. By analyzing the charts, you can compare a tape of an person s normal address form with a tape of the same individual being questioned about his or her engagem ent in some type of offense or other misbehaviour38. These voiceprints may be an of import in assisting the jurisprudence enforcement bureaus in placing the felons. Much like fingerprints, voiceprint designation uses the alone characteristics in the spectrographic feelings of people s utterances39. In the classical parallel spectrograph a magnetic tape recording equipment and playback unit is used to treat the sounds into electronic signals. These signals are so sent through a variable electronic bandpass filter, which selects a frequence set that is to be analysed, before a stylus measures its energy and records the consequences on electrical sensitive paper. The paper is mounted on a membranophone, which is revolving during playback in order to plot the clip fluctuations in the signal. When the whole length of the address sample in analysed at a specific frequence set, the set of the filter and the place of the stylus are correspondingly altered. The tape is so played once more in order to analyze a new portion of the frequence spectrum. This procedure is repeated over once more until the full coveted frequence scope is analysed. In each spectrograph, the horizontal dimension is clip, the perpendicular dimension represents frequence and the darkness represents the strength on the compaction scale40.The differences in amplitude values are shown in a Grey scaling where black represents the most intense and white the least intense wave form constituents. However since 1962, it was considered as a fool- cogent evidence method of personal designation, voice designation by spectrographic analysis, the voiceprint technique has been in a legal oblivion. But the recent developments in both scientific discipline and the jurisprudence, nevertheless, indicate that despite ab initio inauspicious scientific and judicial reaction, spectrographic voice designation is possibly coming of legal age41. 3 ) Computerized approach- This is a semi automatic attack for acknowledgment of address samples which involves three phases: Feature Extraction Feature Comparison Categorization In this method the parametric quantities of the signals are extracted by agencies of spectrum analyser and acknowledgment is made by agencies of computing machine system on the footing of stored informations in regard of controlled samples of the talkers. However it is observed that the mistake rates of machines are frequently more than an order of magnitude greater than those of worlds, as machine public presentation degrades below that of worlds in noise, with channel variableness, and for self-generated speech42. 4 ) Modern technique utilizing a package: BATVOX 3.043- BATVOX 3.0 is an automatic talker acknowledgment application designed to let the biometric designation of talkers in an probe comparing voice theoretical accounts to a set of sounds added in the system. The audio files entered in BATVOX 3.0 have to carry through certain conditions: BATVOX 3.0 accepts audio files in the undermentioned format: .wav files with additive PCM cryptography, trying frequence 8 KHz, 16-bit declaration and glandular fever. Manages audio files of at least 7 seconds of net address. Manages audio files whose signal to resound ratio is more than 10dBs The trial and the preparation audio files should possess the voice of the talkers sharing the same sex, same linguistic communication and have same channel features LIMITATIONS OF SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION44 Short continuance samples should be analysed decently The dissimilar linguistic communication in questioned and specimen are hard to analyse Emotion Variability in questioned and specimen samples45 Misspoken or misread prompted phrases Ill recorded/noisy samples are hard to analyze46 Insufficient figure of comparable words Disguise in address samples poses a job in talker acknowledgment and/or the grade of camouflage is decided by the expert Extreme emotional provinces ( e.g. emphasis or duress ) 47,48 Change in physical province of the talker ( e.g. feeding, consequence of ethyl alcohol, etc ) 49 The attitude of the how the address is said by the talker Channel mismatch or mismatch in entering conditions ( e.g. utilizing different mikes for registration and confirmation ) 50 Different pronunciation velocity of the trial informations compared with the preparation informations. Illness 51,52 Aging ( the vocal piece of land can float off from theoretical accounts with age ) 53,54 ACCURACY IN SPEAKER RECOGNITION In order to acquire accurate consequences from talker acknowledgment, one must give more accent on following factors: The minimal continuance of the gathered samples should be of 60 seconds Conditionss under which the voice samples are recorded should possess less noise or the signal to resound ratio of the samples should be greater The features of the instruments used The accomplishment of the tester doing judgement Examiners knowledge about the instance Examiners knowledge about the linguistic communication in question55 Properties of the voice involved Delay in scrutiny of samples56 The linguistic communication of the questioned and controlled samples should be similar The expert should be competent plenty to cover with the instances affecting cloaked address samples. CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFICATION A hearer may acknowledge a voice even without seeing the talker. There are cues in voice and address behavior, which are single and therefore do it possible to acknowledge the familiar voices57. A individual s mental ability to command his vocal piece of land musculuss during vocalization is learned during his childhood. These wonts affect the scope of sound that may be efficaciously produced by an person. The scope of sounds is the subset of the set of possible sounds that an person could make with his or her personal vocal piece of land. It is non easy for an single to alter voluntarily these physical characteristics58. The address moving ridge is the response of the vocal piece of land filter system to one or more sound beginning. Speech moving ridge may be unambiguously specified in footings of beginning and filter characteristics59. Datas obtained from measurings of the acoustic belongingss of human voices are really different from Deoxyribonucleic acid profiles. Acoustic inform ations are uninterrupted non distinct and the talker neer says the same thing, precisely the same manner twice. The strength of grounds from a forensic voice comparing can non be expressed as a lucifer chance and must be expressed in signifier of a full likeliness ratio60. It is observed that really dependable determinations can be made by trained professional testers when samples are obtained in the mode described. The surveies produced strong grounds that even really good mimics can non double an- other s address patterns61. The standards of designation of address samples utilizing different techniques are discussed as follows: Auditory analysis- In this method, the designation is done on the footing of following voice characteristics- Quality of speech sample- Synthetic address can be compared and evaluated with regard to intelligibility, naturalness, and suitableness for used application62. Pronunciation, Accent, Speech sounds like vowels and consonants, stop consonants, spirants, nasal and pharynx sounds and matching consequence, Grammar, Stress, Syllable emphasis, Intonation, Rhythm, Fluency, tempo, Phrasing and Blending63. Each individual possesses a alone voice quality which depend on figure of anatomical characteristics, such as, dimension of unwritten piece of land, throat, rhinal pit, form and size of lingua and lips, place of dentition, tissue denseness etc. Linguistic features- Linguistics is the scientific survey of natural linguistic communication. These characteristics involves, the fashionable feeling of address, bringing of address ( the manner in which the address is delivered i.e. , Manuscript, Memorized, Impromptu, and Extemporaneous64 ) , Phonation ( the procedure by which the vocal creases produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic quiver or any oscillating province of any portion of voice box that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is one example65 ) . Articulatory speech- This is a type of address produced by motion or articulation of the articulators. This involves, flow of address ( depends upon the eloquence of the speaker66 ) , plosive formation ( First, a complete closing of the transition of air at the same point in the vocal piece of land, so the remotion of the closing, doing a sudden release of the out of use air with some explosive noise ) , nasality ( Nasal consonants have a uninterrupted full closing at some point in the unwritten pit. Since the veil is set in the low place, opening the velopharyngeal port, air is let out through the rhinal pit ) . Prosodic analysis- It involves the modulation form, moral force of volume ( kineticss refers to the volume of a sound or note and volume is the strength of esthesis received through the ear ) , speech rate ( comparative timing of different address events in spoken vocalizations ) , speech fluctuations, striking clip characteristics, intermissions ( number/length/pattern ) . Voice impairment- Speech or linguistic communication damage ( SLI ) means a communicating upset, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, linguistic communication damage, or a voice damage, that adversely affects a individual s educational public presentation. Speech and linguistic communication upsets refer to jobs in communicating and related countries such as unwritten motor map. These holds and upsets range from simple sound permutations to the inability to understand or utilize linguistic communication or utilize the oral-motor mechanism for functional address and eating. Some causes of address and linguistic communication upsets include hearing loss, neurological upsets, encephalon hurt, mental deceleration, drug maltreatment, physical damages such as cleft lip or roof of the mouth, and vocal maltreatment or abuse. Frequently, nevertheless, the cause is unknown. Temporal measurements- The temporal belongingss of address play an of import function in lingual contrast. Address can be said to be comprised of three chief temporal characteristics based on dominant fluctuation rates ; envelope, cyclicity and all right construction. Each characteristic has distinct acoustic manifestations, auditory and perceptual correlatives and functions in lingual contrasts67. These measurings involves phonation-time ( P/T ) ratio, address clip ( S/T ) rate, address explosion ( its number/length/patterns ) . Spectrographic analysis- The spectrograph is an instrument used to analyze the complex wave forms of sound and their changes in clip. This is done through spectrographs, which are in writing shows of the amplitude as a map of both frequence and time68. In this method, the hint words are selected from the questioned and the specimen samples on the footing of audile analysis. These are so selected for voice spectrographic analysis. A trained tester may be able to give an sentiment about the similarity between the two samples on the footing of features like: Cardinal frequency- It is the frequence of quiver of vocal cord produced during the rapid gap and shutting of vocal cord69, ( as shown in fig 5 ) . The cardinal frequence of a periodic signal is an opposite of period length. The period, in bend, is the smallest reiterating unit of a signal70. In voice spectrograph, horizontal distance between perpendicular striations is an indicant of cardinal frequence. It besides includes the pitch of voice i.e. , the rate of quiver of vocal cords. Software, BATVOX 3.0- The working of this package depends upon the undermentioned elements43: Case- It is the depository of audio files, theoretical accounts and computations portion of the same probe or forensic instance. Audio file- this is the first component to come in into the system in order to construct the theoretical accounts and calculate some biometric computations. The audio files in BATVOX can chiefly classified in two types Trial sound: Unknown sound file used to be compared to a fishy theoretical account in order to happen it out if both belongs to the same talker Training sound: sound file recorded from the known talker, used to make a voice theoretical account which can be compared with the trial sound files. Model- A theoretical account generated from the sound files is the representation of features of the talker s voice. Training of a model- A biometric procedure which extracts the features of the voice from the sound samples and therefore, generates a theoretical account. Session- Group of computations gathered together because of some common facets harmonizing to the standards of the user. The computations included in a session can be designation and a LR computation. Identification- The aim of the talker designation is to sort a voice whose beginning is non known. Likelihood ratio ( LR ) It is a relationship of chances. First, we have the likeliness that the trial belongs to a suspect and secondly, the trial does non belong to the suspect. One of the differences between the LR and designation is the manner of showing consequences. Normalization- It is the procedure of rectifying the effects that the deficiency of alliance has on statistical marking. This deficiency of alliance is caused by the heterogenous nature of the sound system. Reference population- These types of samples are fundamentally required for the standardization of the instrument. For a proper choice of the mention population, the features of the population should fit the features of the disputed talker. These features include the sex of the talker, channel type, net spoken length and language75. Mentions Phil Rose A ; James R Robertson, Forensic Speaker Identification , Taylor A ; Francis,1999 MohamedChenafa et Al, Biometric System Based on Voice Recognition Using Multiclassifiers , Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Volume 5372/2008 B.R. Sharma, Scientific Criminal Investig

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Characteristics of Business Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Characteristics of Business Leadership - Essay Example In this context, the present study focuses on a highly popular business leader, Steven Jobs, the founder of Apple Computer Company and shall learn about his role and practices that he used in his leadership attributes in his company. Steven Jobs: The Initiation of His Leadership Skills in Business: Steven Paul Jobs, as now remembered as Steve Jobs, was a highly popular tycoon in the world of business proving to be a highly successful entrepreneur in the electronics and information technology industry. He has been part of several patents related to the invention and development of computer related products. Initially discussing about his business life, it was in 1977 that Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak together presented their first microcomputer in the White House. It was named as Apple II and the entire marketing plan and decisions were undertaken by Jobs. By 1993, the sale of the product made the two inventors millionaires. Thereafter, Jobs continued with his newer inventions, as wel l as managing his Apple Company with due sincerity and leadership. When he realized that the company needed experienced administration, he involved John Sculley in the team of management (Biography of Steve Jobs and Timeline of Apple, 2011). In this context it can be understood that the business leader survived several challenges while he could reach to the level of success. Firstly, he was new in the market that represented the fear of not being recognized by consumers. Secondly, his product was associated with the IT thus there could only be certain sections of people who would be interested. Thirdly, the first microcomputer that they invented was meant for commercial purposes and for the mass. Thus lack of acceptance could pose severe threats to their career. However, although the above mentioned challenges existed, Jobs became successful and his Apple Company gradually proved to be a huge success. This in other words reflects on the efficient leadership and management style that Jobs presented in his work. Business Leadership of Steve Jobs: Steve Jobs was known for his autocratic style of leadership values. He used to remain personally involved in all the steps and measures undertaken for the objectives of his company. For his working team, he used to involve people who matched with his mindset and he was highly demanding. He did not love delegating authority to people and would rather get involved in person in every aspect of operation. Jobs was extremely serious with his work and loved his Company too much to even lessen his involvement while he was ill (Branson, 2011). Steve’s inventions were meant for the global markets and thus he had to encounter cultural differences as well. However, the success of the company represents that Steve had been capable of adjusting to the differences and marketing his products successful across the world. The primary reason behind his adjustment and success was his love and involvement for the technology that he worked on. Steve believed in thinking differently and had faith in the values and principles of the company that he never left behind. Compassion for his company allowed the business leader to stick to his views and policies and continue with delivering his products successfully in the global market as well as adjusting with different cultures across the world. He delivered his products not depending on the choices

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Trials and Verdicts Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Trials and Verdicts - Research Paper Example This is the sixth year of the case and the reporter still refuses to identify the source of the story (Liptak, 2014). The matter in discussion involves the US intelligence particularly about a covert operation conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Iran that was meant to stop this country from having nuclear power. The mission was top government secret but the ex-CIA officer involved revealed it to the reporter who then wrote it in his published book as a whole chapter. The matter cannot therefore be handles by a state court as it involves the federal government and hence the reason the subpoena was from the Court of Appeals and the matter was later taken to the Supreme Court. If the case involved only the reporter and not a federal organization, then it would have been appropriately handled by the state courts but this was not the case. The case is about a soldier in Iraq that shot and killed 5 fellow soldiers two of whom were medical personnel in an open fire in their camp near the Baghdad airport. The man based on the murder charges was to be convicted to a death penalty but he instead took a plea bargain that would prevent him from being under death penalty but pleaded guilty of all the murder charges. The plea bargain deal was bargained by his lawyer and was accepted by the judge even though he would still face court trial. The plea bargain that was taken was solely as a result of his medical history and the diagnosis of a post-traumatic stress disorder at the time of the shooting (Johnson, 2013). Not many people and especially the family of the murdered soldiers would accept that justice has been served but in this case it was served. According to the report by Johnson, (2013), Russell the defendant had been suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis at the time of the shooting and the maltreatment he received from the medical personnel triggered the violence streak which he could not

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Korean Airline Porter's 5 Forces Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Korean Airline Porter's 5 Forces - Coursework Example The customers of KAL include passengers, corporate organizations as well as other actors in the aircraft industry among others. The table below highlights the industry analysis that constitutes Porter’s five forces that can impact on its operations. KAL has a total of 149 aircraft and is the largest in terms of consumers and it specializes in offering services in the following sectors: Passenger services, components and parts, aerospace services as well as cargo (KAI). However, there are other competitors in the aviation industry which include the following: Asiana Airlines which is the second largest airline in Korea, currently operating a total of 83 aircraft, on top of that, there are also five Low Cost Carriers (LCC): Jeju Air, Jin Air, Air Busan, Eastar Jet, and T’Way Air. Though KAL is the largest airline, the existence of rivalry among the other existing players cannot be ignored. It poses a threat to the airline. As noted above, there are six other competitors in the aircraft industry which entails that the threat of substitutes is high. For instance, â€Å"In 2013, 4.9 million international travelers, or 9.6% of all international travelers, used LCCs,† (KAI). The number of passengers using LCCs has dramatically increased which means that they can switch from KAL to these low cost planes. On the other hand, the consumers have the power to determine prices since they can easily switch to low cost careers and this in turn can force Korean Airlines to review its prices downwards. According to KAI, the bargaining power of suppliers is low as a result of the fact that â€Å"all U.S. aerospace exports are duty-free as of March 15, 2012, and as a result of the implementation of the Korea-U.S. FTA (KORUS).† This means that this trade agreement between the two countries is specifically meant to protect the interests of both nations. Prices are regulated at acceptable levels

Friday, November 15, 2019

Water and power consumption: Analysis of sewage treatment plant

Water and power consumption: Analysis of sewage treatment plant 1. INTRODUCTION: Waters unique Characteristics and its essential Role for all life have inspired myths and influenced cultures, religions, art, and literature through all times. The process involved for the RBC Biological Treatment method is named as FIXED FILM ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR BIOWHEELS. In this process by means of rotation of the bio wheels micro organisms are expected to growth in the RBC and the overflow from the Lamella clarifier will be the first stage of the treated water. The micro organisms will develop on the surface of the disk and the colonization of the organisms will take place because of the inlet load into the system. The thick film like formation in the surface of the disk is the indication of the growth. In Sewage water the main constituents of Pollutants being organic in nature these can be digested easily in the RBC. Sewage is created by institutions, residences, and hospitals and commercial and industrial establishments. Raw influent of sewage wastewater includes household waste liquid from the toilets, sinks, showers, kitchens, baths, and so forth that is disposed of sewage waste water. 1.1 Aim: The aim of the project is to Analysis of water consumption and power consumption of sewage treatment plant. 1.2 Objective: * To Analysis the water and power consumption of the sewage treatment plant * To vary the parameters of water source, power source. * To Analyze the Rotating Biological contactor Biowheels.Lamella clarifier * Analyzing 2D design of the Sewage Treatment Plant. * To analyze the results and propose appropriate solution. 2. BACKGROUND RESEARCH: Waste water collected from domestic and industrial communities must be returned to receiving waters or to the land. Although the collecting of storm water and drainage dates from ancient times the collection of waste water can be traced only to the early 1800s. The systematic treatment of wastewater followed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. There are many methods and processes to treat wastewater. The most common approach uses primary treatment (screening and clarification) to remove solids; aerobic, suspended growth, activated sludge secondary treatment to reduce organic pollutants; and chlorine disinfection to reduce pathogens. Secondary treatment is the largest energy consumer (30 to 60% of total plant usage), followed by pumping and sludge processing. Although suspended growth, activated sludge is the most common wastewater treatment process, it is not the most energy efficient. Aerated lagoons, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors are significantly more efficient. They are not as widely used because aerated lagoons require a large land area, and trickling filters and rotating biological contactors are better suited for smaller capacity applications. Many wastewater treatment plants are shifting from chlorine-based disinfection to UV disinfection to eliminate the risk of storage and handling of toxic chemicals. Although UV disinfection is energy intensive, it adds no chemical residue to the effluent. This feature is particularly important for discharge to sensitive aquatic environments or for wastewater reuse. In general, low pressure UV systems are substantially more efficient than medium pressure systems. Energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment include the use of fine bubble diffusers, dissolved oxygen control of aeration, high efficiency blowers, variable frequency drives on pumps and blowers, premium efficiency motors, and the reduction of the head against which pumps and blowers operate. Sewage is generally a mixture of domestic of waste water from bath, sinks and washing machines and toilets, waste water from all industry and rainwater runoff from roads and other surfaced areas. Every day in the UK about 347,000 Kilometers of sewers collect over 11 Billion liters of waste water. This is treated about 9000 sewage treatment works before the treated effluent is discharged to inland waters, estuaries and the sea. Without suitable treatment, the waste water we produce every day would damage the water environmental and creates to affect the public health problems. Untreated sewage contains organic matter carbohydrates, fats and proteins, bacteria and chemicals. Bacteria naturally present in environmental waters do break these substances down, but in doing so they use the oxygen dissolved in this water. If there were large or continuous untreated discharges of urban waste water the result could be too little oxygen for fish and other aquatic life to survive. So the purpose of waste water treatment is to remove organic substances to protect the environment from these effects. Sewage works therefore reproduce what would be occurring in the environmental. Settling out much of the solid matter is called Primary Treatment, and using Bacteria that digest and break down the organic substances is called Secondary Treatment. Sometimes further treatment Tertiary is required to protect sensitive water environments; Tertiary treatment can involve disinfecting the treated effluent to protect the bathing and shellfish waters. It can also involve the removal of phosphorous or nitrates nutrients present in sewage. To protect the waters that is threatened by eutrophication. (ref sewage treatment in the UK defray department for environment food Rural affairs,PB 6655 March 2002.). 3. LITERATURE REVIEW: Municipal water use is generally divided into four categories, 1. Domestic water normally used for sanitary and general purposes 2. Industrial water used for nondomestic purposes, 3. The Public service water normally used for fir fighting, and system maintenance and also municipal landscape irrigation. 4. Unaccounted for system losses and leakage The following data are typical municipal water use in the United States Report. ( (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) Table 1 Municipalities water use 3.1 Domestic water use:. Domestic water use encompasses the water supplied to residential areas ,and commercial districts, institutional facilities, and recreational facilities as a measured by individual water meters .The uses to which this water is put include drinking, washing, bathing, culinary, and waste removal, and yard watering these kind of water collected from household sewage. Using the average flow values reported in above table of the water used in a municipal water supply system is for domestic purposes. 3.2 Residential areas: The water normally used by residential households consists of water for interior use such as showers and toilets and water for exterior use such as lawn watering and car washing, the household wastewater mostly used in sewage treatment plant. Typical data for interior water use are presented in below table. How much amount of water used in residential areas water use for exterior applications varies widely depending upon the geographic location, climate and time of year and mainly consists of landscape irrigation. The Residential areas 100% of water normally used by typical distribution of residential interior water use the following table given details Table 2 Typical distribution interior water use (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.3 Commercial facilities: The water used by commercial facilities for sanitary purposes will vary widely depending on the type of activity means example of offices and compared to a restaurant. Typical water use values for various types of commercial facilities are reported in following table also for large commercial water using facilities such as laundries and car washes, careful estimates of actual water use should be made. Table 3 Typical rates of water use for commercial facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.4 Institutional facilities: Water used by facilities such as hospitals, schools and rest home is usually based on some measure of the size of the facility and the type of housing function provided example of per student or per bed, and water normally use for schools will vary significantly depending on whether the students are housed on campus or are day students. The representative water use values for institutional facilities are reported following table. Table 4 Typical water-use values for institutional facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 3.5 Recreational Facilities: The recreational facilities mostly water used in such as swimming pools, bowling alleys, and camps, resorts, then country clubs perform a wide range of functions involving water use. The following table typical water use values are reported. Table: Typical water-use values for recreational facilities (George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L. Burton, 1991) 4. SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT: 4.1PRINCIPLE: Sewage treatment plant there are two main types of biological reaction, depending upon the presence or absence of free oxygen, the aerobic reaction takes place only in the presence of free oxygen and produces stable, relatively inert end products. Anaerobic reaction are more complex, being two stage, proceeding relatively slowly and leading to end products which are unstable and which still contain considerable amounts of energy. In any biological reaction the energy in the organic matter, used as food by the microorganisms, is split three ways; some is used in creating new microorganisms, some is incorporated in the end products of the reaction, the proportions of energy in the three areas depend upon the nature of the reaction, the type of organic matter, the type of microorganisms,and environmental conditions. The organic matter in wastewater thus provides the well as providing the energy for the oxidation reactions which releases the end products of biological treatment. (THY Teb butt,1990). Domestic sewage satisfies all these requirements but some industrial wastewaters may be lacking in nutrients or other factors, which could result in inhibition of biological activity, Toxic substances present in the wastewater can also mean that biological treatment of an organic wastewater is ineffective, although it is sometimes possible for microorganisms to become acclimated to substances which initially appear to be toxic. The aim of conventional biological treatment processes is to achieve almost complete removal of the organic matter in the feed. The activated sludge system is a common form of dispersed growth reactor, and both systems require a settling facility to remove the excess biological solids produced in the process. In the case of fixed film systems the solids are essentially dead cells, but with the dispersed growth activated sludge systems the bulk of the cells are living and are returned to the reactor for re use, only the excess solids being removed. (THY Tebbut t,1990). Characterstics of waste water sewage treatment plant:  · Bio chemical oxygen demand  · Total dissolved solids  · Chemical oxygen demand  · Total suspended solids  · PH  · Bio chemical oxygen demand: It is a measure of the amount of oxygen that bacteria will consume while decomposing organic matter under aerobic conditions.  · Total dissolved solids: It comprises inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. The principle constituents are usually the captions , calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium and the anions carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate and particularly in groundwater nitrate.  · Chemical oxygen demand: It is a measure of the total quantity of oxygen required to oxidize all organic material into carbon dioxide and water. * Total suspended solids: It is a measure of the suspended solids in waste water, effluent, or water bodies determined by tests for Total suspended non-filterable solids.  · PH: It is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The PH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14. ( ) Classification of Waste Water Treatment Methods The wastewater treatment is contaminants are removed by physical, chemical and also biological methods. Sewage Treatment Plant individual methods usually are classified as a physical unit operations, chemical unit operations and also Biological unit operations and processes. Although these operations and processes occur in a variety of combinations in Treatment Systems. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 4.2 Physical operations unit: The Treatment methods in which the application of physical forces to predominate are known as physical operation unit. Because most of these methods involved directly from the first observations of a nature, and they were the first to be used for wastewater .treatment. These are the Screening, Mixing, Flocculation, Flotation,sedimentation,Filtration,and Gas transfer are typical unit operations. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972). Screening: The first off all unit operation entered in wastewater treatment plants is screening .a screen is a device with openings ,generally of uniform a size, that is using to retain the coarse solids found in wastewater. Description: The screening elements may consists of parallel bars, wires or ,grating, rods, mesh, or perforated plate ,a screen composed of parallel bars or rods is called a bar rack sometimes called a bar screen). The term screen is used for screening devices consisting of perforated plates wedges wire elements and wire cloth. The materials removed by these devices are known as screenings. Bar Racks: In Wastewater treatment, bar racks are used to protect the Pumps pipelines valves and other appurtenances from the damaged or clogging by a rags and large objects. Screens: Sewage treatment plant is widely used to Barscreening,early screens were of the inclined disk or drum type, whose screening media consisted of bronze or copper plates with milled slots ,and were installed in place of sedimentation tanks for primary treatment .since the early 1970s,there has been resurgence of interest in the field of wastewater treatment in the use of screens of all types ,the application range from primary treatment to the removal of the residual suspended solids from biological treatment processes. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) Mixing: Mixing is an important unit operation in many phases of wastewater treatment including (1)the mixing of one substances completely with another, (2)the mixing of liquid suspensions,(3)the blending of miscible liquids,(4)flocculation and (5)heat transfer .chemicals are also mixed with sludge to improve tidal watering characteristics. In anaerobic digestion, mixing is used accelerate the biological conversion process and to heat the contents of the digester uniformly . Description Apparatus: Most mixing operations in wastewater can be classified as continuous rapid or continuous. Continuous -rapid mixing is used most often where one substance is to be mixed with another. Continuous mixing is used where the contents of reactor or holding tank or basin must be kept in suspension. Energy dissipation mixing: The power input per unit volume of liquid can be used as a rough measure of mixing effectiveness, based on the reasoning that more input power creates greater turbulance,and greater turbulence leads to better mixing. Sedimentation:: It is one of the most widely used in waste water treatment, sedimentation is the separation from the water, by gravitational settling, of suspended solids that are heavier than water, it is one of the most widely used unit operations in wastewater treatment .A Sedimentation basin may also be referred to as a sedimentation tank, settling basin ,or settling tank, Sedimentation is used for grit removal, particularly floating matter removal in the primary settling basin, biological float removal in the activated sludge and settling basin and chemical flog removal. Whenever the chemical coagulation processes is used. 4.3 Chemical unit processes: Sewage treatment plant is widely used to chemical unit processes ,This Treatment Methods in which the removal or conversion of the contaminants is brought about by the chemicals or by other chemical reactions are known as a chemical processes unit. There are three different types chemical processes used in the wastewater treatment.Precipitation,and disinfection and adsorption, which the process mostly used in the wastewater treatment. In the chemical precipitation ,treatment is also accomplished by producing a chemical precipitate that will settle. In most cases the settled precipitate will contain the both constituents that may have reacted with the adding to chemicals and the substance that were swept of wastewater as the predicated settled in the water. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 4.4 Chemical coagulation: The settlement of fine colloidal and suspended solids can be assisted by the use of flocculation as but with dilute suspensions, such as lowland river waters, the opportunities for collisions and agglomeration are limited. In such circumstances flocculation does not significantly improve the settling characteristics of the suspension. the addition of a chemical coagulant, which precipitates flocculent solids in the water, followed by flocculation and sedimentation, can provide a high degree of clarification. the processes of chemical coagulation is thus carried out in a sequence of operations, the first of which involves rapid to permit enmeshment of the colloidal solids in the rapidly precipitating flock. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Following the initial stage precipitation stage, the suspension is passed to flocculation and sedimentation units, which may be separate or combined. the most popular coagulant for potable water treatment is aluminum sulphate, often referred to as alum. When it is added to water in small doses of around 20-50mg/l,a reaction takes place with the natural alkalinity present, and insoluble aluminum hydroxide is formed. this responds well to controlled flocculation. The chemical reactions which occur are complex but may be simplified as Al2(SO4)3 +3Ca(HCO3)2 = 2Al(OH)3 + 3CaSo4 +6CO2 When using the commercial alum which has 16-18 molecules of water of crystallization, and expressing alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate, each mg/l of alum reacts with 0.5mg/l of alkalinity. By using a range of coagulant does and PH values ,it is possible to determine the optimum conditions to achieve the required water quality. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Chemical precipitation: In essence ,chemical precipitation depends upon the use of an added reagent which combines with the impurity to be removed to give an insoluble product which can then be removed by sedimentation, preceded by flocculation if necessary. A(impurity) + B(reagent) = C (precipitate) + D(by product) It is clearly essential that any byproduct of the reaction does not itself have undesirable properties in relation to the eventual use of the water or wastewater. It is also important to remember that chemical precipitation processes produce sludges containing the impurities and that the cost of handling and disposing of these sludges in a safe manner can be significant. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) Disinfection: Disinfection refers to the selective destroy of disease causing organism .all the organisms are not destroyed of during the process; this differentiates disinfection from sterilization, which is the destruction of all organisms. In the field of waste water treatment, there are three categories of human enteric organisms of the greatest consequence in producing disease are viruses, bacteria, and amoebic cysts. Disinfection is widely used to wastewater sewage treatment plant; there are well -established links between the contamination of drinking water with facial matter and the incidence of such water related diseases as cholera, typhoid and many gastrointestinal infections. Thus the removal of the pathogenic microorganisms from water supplies is a very valuable measure for the improvement of public health. Disinfection means the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms and does not necessarily mean that the water is sterile, since a small number of harmless microorganisms are usually present in tap water and poses no hazard. For most disinfection the rate of kill is given by dN/dt = -KN where k = rate constant N = number of living microorganisms The rate constant varies with the particular disinfectant, its concentration, the organism being killed,PH,Temperature,and other environmental factors. (THY Tebbutt, 1990) 5. Biological unit processes: Sewage Treatment plant is widely used to Biological unit processes ,this is processes is remove the microorganism of the water, In this Treatment methods in which the removal of contaminants is bring about by biological activity are known as a biological unit processes. Biological treatment is used primary to remove the biodegradable organic substances matter (means colloidal or dissolved )in wastewater.Basically,these substances matter are converted into the gases that can be escaped to the atmosphere and into the biological cell tissue unit that can be removed by settling. At the same time this treatment is also used to remove the nutrients (means nitrogen and phosphorous) in wastewater. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972) 5.1 Components of wastewater Flows The components of the wastewater flows that make up the wastewater flow from a community depend on the type of collection system used and may include the following: There are four types of wastewater flows available in the wastewater treatment. 1. Domestic (is also called sanitary) wastewater. This is kind of wastewater discharged from residences and from commercial,instutional , and house hold sewage toilet waste water, bath, sinks ,and canteen wastewater and similar facilities. 2. Industrial wastewater .this kind of wastewater in which industrial wastes predominate. 3. Infiltration/inflow .water that enters the sewer system through the indirect and direct means. The Infiltration is extraneous water enters that the sewer system through the leaking joints. 4. Storm water. Runoff resulting from rainfall and snowmelt. This kind of components of wastewater flows essentially used in the sewage treatment plant. 5.2 Waste water treatment: There are four different types of wastewater processing in available in sewage treatment plant. Primary treatment referred to physical unit operations. Secondary treatment referred to chemical and Biological unit process, and also Advanced or tertiary referred to combinations of all four other processing.  · Preliminary wastewater treatment: Preliminary wastewater treatment is defined as the removal of wastewater constituents that may causes to maintenance of the operational problems with the treatment of the operations. Examples of preliminary operations are screening and commutation for the removal of debris (J.Staudenmann, A. Schonborn, C. Etnier, 1996).primary wastewater treatment: In primary wastewater treatment, a portion of the suspended solids and organic material is removing from the waste water. This removal is usually accomplished with physical operations such as screening and sedimentation. The effluent from primary treatment will ordinarily contain considerable organic matter and will have relatively high BOD.treatment plants using only primary treatment will be phased out in the future as implementation of the EPA secondary treatment requirements is completed. Rare instances (for those communities having a secondary treatment waiver)will primary treatment be used as the sole method of treatment .the principal function of primary treatment will continue to be as a precursor to secondary treatment . * Conventional secondary wastewater treatment: The secondary treatment is directed principally toward the removal of bio degradable organics and suspended. Disinfection is included frequently in the definition of conventional secondary treatment is defined as the combination of processes customarily used for the removal of these constituents and includes biological treatment by activated sludge fixed film reactors, or lagoon systems and sedimentation.  · Advanced wastewater treatment/wastewater reclamation: Advanced wastewater treatment is defined as the level of treatment required beyond conventional secondary treatment to removing constituents of concern including toxic, nutrients, compounds, and larger amounts of organic material and suspended solids .In addition to the nutrient removal processes, unit operations or processes frequently employed in advanced wastewater treatment are chemical coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by filtration and multi grade filter and also activated carbon filter. (George Tchobanoglous, FranKlin L.Burton, 1991,1979,1972). 6. STP BASED ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS: 6.2 Principle: A Rotating biological contactor (RBC) is constructed of bundles of plastic packing attached radically to a shaft, forming a cylinder of media .the shaft is placed contour bottomed tank so that the media are submerged approximately 40 percent. the contactor surfaces are spaced so that during submergence in wastewater can enter the voids in the packing .when rotated out of the tank ,the liquid trickles out of the voids in the packing. when rotated out of the tank the liquid trickles out of the voids between surfaces and is replaced by air. A fixed film biological growth, similar to that on a trickling filter packing, adheres to the media surfaces. Alternating exposure to organics in the wastewater and oxygen in the air during rotation distributor. Excess the biomass sloughs from the media and is carried out in the processes effluent for gravity separation. A treatment system consists of primary sedimentation preceding and final sedimentation following the rotating biological contactors. Since the recirculation through RBC units is not normally practiced, only sufficient underflow from the final clarifier is returned to allow removal of excess of the biological solids in primary sedimentation and waste sludge similar to the character to the from trickling filter plant ,in withdrawn from the primary clarifiers disposal of waste. In large type of plants, a common shaft is placed over a contoured tank with the wastewater flow parallel to the shaft. A series of four stages are normally installed in the treatment of domestic wastewater for BOD reduction. additional stages may be added to initiate nitrification .Each stage acts as a completely mixed chamber and the movement of the wastewater through the series of tanks simulates plug flow. Biological solids washed off of the media are transported hydraulically under the baffles to be carried out with the effluent.RBC units are protected by installation either in a building with adequate ventilation or under separate plastic covers lined with insulation. The efficiency of BOD removal of in the processing domestic wastewater is based on empirical data from operating RBC plants. the Mathematical equations also have been developed ,but their prediction of the performance is not consistently reliable. the typically recommendations for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater to produce an effluent of less than 30 mg/l of BOD and also 30mg/l of suspended solids. (Mark J.Hammer Mark J.Hammer,Jr, 1996) TECHNICAL DETAILS OF RBC: DESCRIPTION MOC / MAK 1. Polymer sheet die 2m x 2 thk special polymer from Germany 2. RBC Trough poly propylene /FRP 3. RBC Support MS Resin Coated 4. Geared Motor (0.75HP) FLENDER 5. Input Coupling Love Joy 6. Drive Support Mild Steel 7. Bush Nylon 8. Shaft SS304 TANK SCHEDULE OF RBC : The following tanks used in sewage treatment plant based Rotating Biological contactor Processes. 1. Bar screen 2. Collection Tank 3. PIT 1,2,3 4. Flow divider 5. Sludge drying bed 6. Semi Treated water tank 7. Multi grade sand filter 8. Activated carbon filter 9. Treated water tank EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE The following equipments used in sewage treatment plant based Rotating Biological contactor processes. DESCRIPTION MODEL/HP QTY RBC 0.75 hp 1 Submersible Pump 1 Hp 2 Submersible Pump (Lamella) 1 Hp 1 Filter feed submersible pump 3 Hp 2 7. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR PROCESS(60 KILO LITRE PER DAY): 2D 8. WATER CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT: Raw sewage characteristics: Domestic waste water: The volume of a wastewater from a community varies from 50 to 250 gal capital per day depending on the sewer system uses. A common values for domestic wastewater flow is 120 gpcd means 450 liter person per day use, which assumes that the residential waste water have modern water using appliances, such as automatic washing machines. the organic substances matter contributed per person per day in domestic wastewater is approximately 0.24 lb to 110gram of suspended solids and 0.20lb and 90 gram of BOD in communities where a substantial portion of the household kitchen wastes is designed is discharged to the sewer system through garbage grinders. In selection of data for design, the quantity of and organic strength of wastewater should be based on actual measurements taken through the year to account for variations resulting from seasonal climatic changes and other factors. the average values during the peak month may be used for design ,excluding un usual infiltration and inflow, the av erage daily sanitary wastewater flow during the maximum month of the year is commonly 20 to 30 percent greater than the average annual daily flow, excluding seasonal industrial wastes, the average daily BOD load from sanitary wastewater during the maximum month is greater than the annual ave