Monday, September 30, 2019
Marriage is a ceremony or an act completed through contract by which man and woman become husband and wife. It is a loving, caring relationship that provides intimacy and security to all couples. It is entered into because of ensuing political, economic and other advantages and not just of mutual affection. It is viewed legally as civil unions, a legal status and a social institution that simplifies and organizes crucial matters for the partners. Many research studies show that a good marriage is both menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bet for living a long and healthy life especially in the area of adult health and well-being.Ã A leading social scientist name James Q. Wilson explains that persons of the same age who are married have happier life than those who are unmarried. Married people on general are better off and significantly enjoy higher levels of physical and mental health and enjoy greater emotional support and tend to be healthier than those who are either single, divorced or living together. (Wilson 2002) MARRIAGE AND GENDER ISSUES Dr. Robert Coombs of UCLA made a review on recent empirical studies published on how marriage affects adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being. In his review it shows that there is an intimate link between marital status and personal well-being. On aspect of alcoholism, Coombs review found that there are only fifteen percent of the chronic problems drinkers are married as compared to the fifty five percent who are either divorced or separated. On the other hand, single men are more than three times as likely to die of cirrhosis of the liver. (Coombs 1991) Married people also tend to have long and healthy life. As reported by Erasmus University in Rotterdam married people have lowest morbidity rates, while divorced people show highest morbidity rates. Dr. CoombsÃ¢â¬â¢ research review agrees with these findings, as he comments Ã¢â¬Å"virtually every study of mortality and marital status shows that the unmarried of both sexes have higher death rates, whether by accident, disease, or self-inflicted woundsÃ¢â¬ . (Coombs 1991) Dr. Benjamin Malzberg conducted a research and he concludes that married population in general has much low rates of mental disease than any of the other marital groups. Another research conducted jointly at Yale University and UCLA that supports Dr. Malzbeg findings. Consistent with other researches conducted, result of the joint research also concludes that married persons enjoy better health than the unmarried and founds that the highest rates of mental disorder are among the divorced and separated. The lowest rates are among the married and average rates among the single and widowed. (Malzberg 1996) One the best results of the research conducted of impact of marriage is that it offers general happiness. Married person has significantly higher level of happiness than persons who are not married. What about the homosexuals do they have rights to enter into marriage? Maybe yes or maybe no. Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. However, the legitimacy of marriage depends on the authoritative definition of marriage. ARGUMENTS SUPPORTING GAY AND LESBIAN MARRIAGE Prof. Sally Haslanger in his arguments in support to gay and lesbian marriage has point out two (2) issues to consider. The issues on equality and issues on promoting good values that leads to good life. These issues are supported by arguments of marriage as normative ideal, the potential of gay marriage for undermining traditional gender norms, and the unjust displacement of gays and lesbians. On first argument: Marriage as normative ideal. The state has an obligation to promote Ã¢â¬Å"valued ways of livingÃ¢â¬ ; that is why marriage is viewed by the state legally as civil unions, a legal status and a social institution that simplifies and organizes crucial matters for the partners. It is ideal for how sexuality, companionship, affection, personal economics and child rearing are being organized and put to order. Marriage also promotes Ã¢â¬Å"personal and social flourishingÃ¢â¬ in ways that are indifferent to other sexualities of the couple. Therefore, the state has an obligation to promote homosexual and heterosexual marriage. (Haslanger 2006) However, the groups of conservative and anti same-sex marriage are opposing this idea. A Conservatives objection to Haslanger first argument relates that gay and lesbian sex is not good for the individuals involved on it and it is not good for the society. Second argument: The potential of gay marriage for undermining traditional gender norms. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Traditionally and on social norms societies are being dominated by males. It is supported by the strict separation of gender roles and the gendered division of labor. By legalizing same-sex marriage traditional gender norms and male domination are being challenge. Homosexuals have already been accepted during the 19th century that they are essentially different from heterosexuals. The concept as a kind of naturally fixed third sex. On the other hand, same-sex marriage is an effective way to fight against injustice like violence against women. (Haslanger 2006) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The conservatives agrees that our society currently live under male domination but they believe that is was just exaggerated. Conservatives points out that distinct gender roles do not necessarily support that male are more dominant. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just that in society genders are separate but does not necessarily mean that they are not equal.Ã (Haslanger 2006) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another objection to the second argument states that gays and lesbians are stereotypes. That they are dangerously uncontrolled, predatory, insatiable, narcissistic and self-indulgent. Therefore, gays and lesbians are considered unfit for assuming gendered familial roles, producing children and cannot sustain long-term stable relationships. (Haslanger 2006) Third argument: Reversing the unjust displacement of gays and lesbians. Arguments on these issues were structured as a response to DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act). This act was understood that marriage should only be between one man and one woman and become as a family that is considered as foundation of the society.Ã This one man and one woman marriage are considered Ã¢â¬Å"fitÃ¢â¬ for establishing the foundation of society and are therefore Ã¢â¬Å"essential citizensÃ¢â¬ . Further, those who enters into marriage that differ from DOMA policies are therefore Ã¢â¬Å"unfitÃ¢â¬ and inessential citizens. With regards to gays and lesbians in relation to DOMA, gays and lesbian therefore lack the special status ofÃ Ã¢â¬Å"essential citizensÃ¢â¬ and same-sex relationships are not merely a Ã¢â¬Å"lifestyle choiceÃ¢â¬ . Approving same-sex relationship weakens the society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Advocates of same-sex marriage disagree to the arguments stated above they feel that they are being displace and discriminated. Gays and lesbians believe that the state should continue to treat marriage as a pre-political institution but include them as one of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. Moreover, the state to consider marriage as a Ã¢â¬Å"lifestyleÃ¢â¬ choice and grant them rights similar to heterosexual marriage. SUMMARY Legal and moral case for gay and lesbian equality should be given due account by the state for them to feel that they are given equal treatment by the state and the society as a whole. Ã Ã Works Cited Coombs, Robert Ã¢â¬Å"Marital Status and Personal Well-Being: A Literature Review,Ã¢â¬ Family Relations 40 (1991) 97-102. Haslanger, Sally. Ã¢â¬Å"Moral Problems and the Good LifeÃ¢â¬ . (2006) Malzberg, Benjamin. Ã¢â¬Å"Marital Status in Relation to the Prevalence of Mental Disease,Ã¢â¬ Psychiatric Quarterly 10 (1996): 245-261. Stanton, Glenn T. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Marriage MattersÃ¢â¬ . Retrieved 9 October 2007 from Wilson, James Q. Ã¢â¬Å"The Marriage Problem: How Our Culture Has Weakened FamiliesÃ¢â¬ New York: Harper Collins, (2002), p. 16.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Stereotyping reflects expectations and belief about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s response and discrimination refers to emotion (www.usnews.com). We all encounter some form of prejudice or stereotype in our life. What types are they? Would you see the lasting affects it has on someone you yourself had discriminated against? Would you recognize the effects it had on you? This author will introduce you to three different stereotypes, fallacious, hasty generalization, and false dichotomy. I will explain the damages being stereotyped does to a person and the lasting effects it has. Aggression, overeating, inability to focus, and difficulty making rational decisions, all are negative effects experienced by those subjected to prejudice, according to University of Toronto Study (Michael Inzticht, 2012). Ã¢â¬Å"Past studies have shown that people perform in situations where they feel they are being stereotyped,Ã¢â¬ said professor Michael Inzticht of psychology who led the study, published in the monthÃ¢â¬â¢s edition of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. What we wanted to do was look at what happens afterwards. Are there any lingering effects of prejudice? Does being stereotyped have an impact beyond the moment when stereotyping happens (www.usnews,com)? A person that stereotypes based on negative feelings is a person that is indifferent to accepting cultural diversity and situations that they find dissonance with because that are either entrenched with prejudice from a psycho social paradigm, or make the conscientious choice to be prejudice because of their inferential way of thinking. In Nazi Germany people were imprisoned and even killed for trying to fight anti-Semitism. In America we are free to fight it, but too many of us choose to ignore this hate that dare not speak its name. Anti-Semitism is real, it is murderous and it is very much with us today (www.the-american-interest.com). Anti-Semitism involves beliefs that Jews are more clannish that other people and act in concert to support a specific Jewish agenda. Jews deploy ex traordinary wealth with almost superhuman cunning in support of the Jewish agenda. As a religious and national minority, Jews cannot flourish without attacking the traditional values of their host society. In every country Jews seek to weaken national culture, religion, values, and cohesion. Jews are not a national group or a people in the way that others are; they do not have the same rights to establish a nation state that other people do. Where Jewish interest is concerned, the appearance of open debate in our society and many others is carefully constructed illusion. In reality, Jews work together to block open debate on issues they care about and those who resist the Jewish agenda are marginalized in public discussion. These ideas are the five pillars of anti-Semitism; you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to believe them all- any one will do. Being an anti-Semite does not necessarily make you a Nazi. You are an anti-Semite. That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make you a Nazi; Hitler added a sixth pillar of anti-Semitism that the only way to successfully oppose the Jewish agenda was to kill all the Jews. This idea have become so widely accepted that they are seldom questioned or examined; when that happens a whole society is poisoned and distorted. Stereotyping is one of the biggest issues in social psychology but relatively little is known about how and why stereotypes form. Conventional approaches to stereotyping assumes that stereotypes are based on erroneous and distorted processes, but others feel that they form in order to explain aspects of social groups and in particular to explain relationships between groups. In particular stereotypes have often been seen as rigid and distorted mental structure that lead people to make serious errors (McGarty et al, 2010). From a social functional point of view race is a social construction, on the one hand it has been a legitimating ideological tool to suppress and exploit specific social groups and to deny them access to material and cultural resources, work, welfare services, housing, political rights, etc. On the other hand, these affected groups have adopted the idea of race. They have turned the concept around and used it to construct an alternative positive self-identity; they have also used it as a basic for political resistance (Miles, 1993:28) and to fight for more antonomy, independence, and participation. There are several forms of stereotyping and prejudice, but I will give you examples of only three. I will explain the stereotype and elaborate on the meanings they present. Fallacious argument is the first stereotype that I will be discussing. A fallacious argument simply means false or not correct, but is usually used to describe someone being deceptively false. Fallacy is a misconception of a false belief. If someone is being fallacious they are trying to get you to fall for a fallacy (www.vocabulary-vocabulary.com). All African American men who drive big cars are drug dealers. Or if a group of African American youth or men stand around in a group they are gang bangers. This is a fallacious belief. African American men have driven large cars as long as I can remember. My uncle all my life has driven nothing but Lincoln Continentals. He is now a retired engineer from the railroad having driven trains for more than thirty years. I have friends that are firemen, teachers, and family men that wound not purchase a car if sit was not as itÃ¢â¬â¢s called a Ã¢â¬Å"Big Body.Ã¢â¬ Next, people stand around and talk, and socialize in crowds all the time, this does not mean they are gang bangers. I have made my sons stop standing around with their friends by a fence in the neighborhood because I did not want them harassed by the police if they should pass by and see them standing there. People assume the worst of people out of fear and or ignorance on their part. The next stereotype that I will discuss is one that I personally experienced. Ã¢â¬Å"Since you are so tall I know you can play basketball.Ã¢â¬ Being a woman of tall statue everyone assumes that I play basketball. All through Jr. High and High School my physical education teachers tried to get me to play ball. The head coach for the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ basketball team even tried to get me to leave band which I loved and play ball for her. I forever heard, Ã¢â¬Å"as tall as you are I know you can play.Ã¢â¬ I hated basketball, I still do. I never cared for the sport even when I had to play for physical education class. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s height and statue does not mean that they would have a passion for a sport that is l oved by others of this statue. Just because I was nearly 6 feet should not have been reason for anyone to feel that I like to play basketball. This argument is false dichotomy. False dilemma thinking or the fallacy of exhaustive hypothesis is a type of logical fallacy that involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, which in fact there is at least one additional option. The generalization was made that since I was tall I wanted and liked to play basketball. The third and final stereotype is one that I was questioned about years ago by a good friend of mine. She was a large young lady and short which made her look even larger. She would always seem down and stand offish around a group of people that we did not know. I have always been one to speak and socialize with anyone and somewhat stylish in dress. She questioned me on an outfit that I was wearing saying that I should feel self-conscious because my back was out in the dress and that she would never wear something like that because of her size. I simply informed her that this is her problem; you (she) allow others to dictate how you feel about yourself. They say you should be ashamed or embarrassed about your looks (i.e. weight) and because of this you should act and feel this way, not true. Just because you are not a size 3 and average height does not mean you are not beautiful and should have all the esteem, and pride in yourself as anyone could muster. This argument if fallacious because the inference from the premise to the conclusion is fallacy because of mistakes in the reasoning (Mosser, K. 2010). People who felt they were discriminated against-whether based on gender, age, race, religion Ã¢â¬â all experienced significant impacts even after they were removed from the situation. The lingering effects hurt people in a very real way, leaving them at a disadvantage. Even many steps removed from a prejudicial situation, people are carrying around this baggage that negatively impacts their lives. People are aggressive in their ideologies because they are adamant in their discriminatory beliefs. Negative stereotyping does have lasting affects because this construct is generally instilled in their children and if this cyclical deterministic view is not broken, such negativity will continue to manifest. Racism and Anti-Semitism is very much alive and still a major problem in this country, and around the world. References: www.ask.com/falsedichotomy www.blogs.the-american-interest.com/wrm www.Ksuweb.Kernesaw.edu/~shagin/logfal-emotion-hastygen.htm http://www.libcom.org/history/article/racism_brief-history McGarty, Craig, Spears, Bussell, Yzerbut, Vincent (1/2002), Stereotypes and Explanation Published: Cambidge University Press, Post Chester, NY, USA, Retrieved from: www.site.ebray.com/lib/ashford/docDetail?docID=10023552pg24=stereotypeing Mosser, Kurt, (2011), Logic and Introduction, San Diego, CA: Bridgeport Education, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.content.ashford.edu/books Stereotyping has Lasting negative Impact: Prejudice has Lingering Effects Retrieved from: www.usnews.com/science/article/2010/08/12/stereotypes
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Once a niche company operating in the northeast, Dunkin' Donuts is opening hundreds of stores and entering new markets. At the same time, the java giant is broadly expanding both its food and coffee menus to ride the trends, appealing to a new generation of customers. But is the rest of America ready for Dunkin' Donuts? Can the company keep up with its own rapid growth? Serving the Caffeinated Masses There's a lot more to a coffee shop. Some 400 billion cups of coffee are consumed every year, making it the most popular beverage globally. Estimates Indicate that more than 100 million Americans drink a total of 350 million cups of coffee a day. But Dunkin' Donuts does, and it's betting dollars to donuts that consumers nationwide will embrace its reputation for value, simplicity, and a superior Boston Kreme donut. Winning New Customers Most of America has had an occasional relationship with the Dunkin' Donuts brand through its almost 5,800 domestic outlets, which have their densest cluster in the northeast and a growing presence in the rest of the country. But the brand has also managed to carve out an International niche, not only in expected markets such as Canada and Brazil, but also in some unexpected ones, including Qatar, South Korea, Pakistan, and the Philippines. The company had 7,306 DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts stores in the U. S. at the end of 2012 and plans to double the number in the next 20 years. In 2013, it will add another 330-360 restaurants across the country. In order to accelerate store openings, DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ is offering incentives to franchisees such as reduced royalty payments during the initial phase. Trefis expects the company to add around 300 new DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts stores in the U. S. on average for the next several years. Since most of Dun kinÃ¢â¬â¢ Brands restaurants are franchised, the capital requirements to open new restaurants are lower which ensure that the expansion plans do not cause a strain on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal situation. What Would Consumers Think? None of Dun kin Donuts' moves makes much difference unless consumers buy into the notion that the company has the culinary imperative to sell suggests. At one point of time Dunkin Donuts decided to add on to its product line by incorporating the breakfast menu. There was a doubt in the minds of people handling strategic marketing that even when consumer see the line of products expand into what was once solely the realm of the company's competitors, they may be unconvinced that Dunkin' Donuts is the shop to go to for breakfast. For most of its existence. Dunkin' Donuts' main product focus has been implicit in its name: donuts and coffee in which to dip them.Ã Also you can read aboutÃ History of the Culinary Arts. First time customer acquainted with this simple reputation were often overwhelmed by the wide varieties of donuts stacked end-to-end neat, mouthwatering rows. Playing catchup to the rest of the morning market, Dunkin' Donuts has only recently joined the breakfast sandwich game. According to spokesperson Andrew Mastroangelo, Dunkin' Donuts sells approximately one billion cups of coffee a year, for 62% of the company's annual store revenue/ Considering that coffee is the most profitable product on the menu, it's a good bet that those margins give the company room to experiment with its food offerings. Changing Course to Follow Demand Faced with the challenge of maintaining a relevant brand image in the face of fierce and innovative competition. Dunkin' Donuts pursued a time-honored business tradition Ã¢â¬â following the leader. The company now offers a competitive variety of espresso-based drinks complemented with a broad number of sugar-free flavorings including caramel, vanilla, and Mocha Swirl. Further more, ever-increasing competition in the morning meal market made an update to Dunkin' Donuts' food selection inevitable. The company currently focuses on begel and croissant-based breakfast sandwiches, including its new Oven-Toasted Breakfast line. On Every Corner Starbucks is known for its aggressive dominance of the coffee marketplace. When a competition opens a new store in twon. Starbucks doesn't worry. It just opens a new store across the street, in a vigorous one-upmanship that conquers new ground and deters competitors. But many who have struggled to compete with Starbucks have had to do so with limited resources or only a few franchises. Not so with Dunkin' Donuts, whose parent brand. Dunkin' Brands, also owns Baskin-Robbins. Simple Food for Simple People Dunkin' Donuts' history of offering simple and straight forward morning snacks has given It the competitive advantage of distinction as the anti-Starbucks-earnest and without pretense. Like Craftsman tools and Levi's jeans, the company offers a comforting sensibility appealing to simple, modest, and cost-conscious customers. The Sweet Spot Has a Jelly Center Dunkin' Ã¢â¬ËDonuts is trying to grow in all directions, reaching more customers in more places with more products. Although Dunkin' Donuts often partners with a select group of grocery retailers such as Stop ; Shop and Wal-Mart-to create a store within-a-store concept, the company won't set up shop in just any grocery store. Ã¢â¬ËWe want to be situated in supermarkets that provide a superior overall customer experience,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course, we also want to ensure that the supermarket is large enough to allow us to provide the full expression of our brand. . . . which includes hot and iced coffee, our line of high-quality espresso beverages, donuts, bagels. muffins, and even our breakfast sandwiches. Furthermore, the outlet's location within the supermarket is critical for a successful relationship. Ã¢â¬Å"We want to be accessible and visible to customers, because we feel that gives us the best chance to increase incremental traffic and help the supermarket to enhance their overall performance. The company is banking on these mutually beneficial partnerships to help it achieve wides pread marketplace prominence. Dunkin' Donuts is a nationally known brand with a long reputation for quality, giving the company the benefit of not having to work hard to earn many customers' trust. But this strategy is not without its risks. In the quest to appeal to new customers, offering too many original products could dilute the essential brand appeal and alienate long-time customers who respect simplicity and authenticity. If Dunkin' Donuts' executives focus too narrowly on franchising new stores, they might not be aware of issues developing in long-standing or even recently established stores. Some older franchises seem long overdue for a makeover, especially when compared to the Starbucks down the block. For the time being, Dunkin' Donuts seems content to continue its methodical quest for continental domination of the coffee and breakfast market. In order to keep up with the latest health concerns, it has reformulated its cookies and muffins to avoid trans fats. The company has even begun shifting its donut production from individual stores into centralized production facilities designed to serve up to 100 stores apiece. Will Dunkin' Donuts strike the right balance of products and placement needed to mount a formidable challenge against competitors in both the breakfast and coffee markets?
Friday, September 27, 2019
Aye aye - Research Paper Example This third digit is independent in movement from the other digits and is extremely versatile. The third digits complete independence in movement serves two main purposes, tapping to find insects within cavities in wood and probing to find and remove larvae from those cavities. This method of locating and extracting insect larval prey is called percussive foraging (Aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis) The unique appearance, rodent like teeth, peculiar ways of finding food, superstitions around it etc made aye-aye one of the interesting creations of God. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest nocturnal primate, and is characterized by its unique method of finding food; it taps on trees to find grubs, then gnaws holes in the wood and inserts its elongated middle finger to pull the grubs outÃ¢â¬ (Aye-Aye Madagascar). This paper briefly analyses different features and superstitions associated with aye-aye. Aye-aye found mainly on the east coast of Madagascar. Rain forests are the habitat of this creature. Majority of the time, aye ayes are spent on tree tops even though they occasionally climb down and moving on the land. However, the destruction of forests or deforestation caused aye-ayes to come out from their natural habitat and visit the populated areas. Aye-aye is a mammal which makes nests for its shelter. Ã¢â¬Å"The nests appear as closed spheres with single entry holes, situated in the forks of large treesÃ¢â¬ (Aye-aye). Like many of the other creatures, they sleep during day and hunt during the night. The major foods of aye-ayes are nuts, grubs, fruits, nectar, seeds, fungi etc. It eats both plants and meats or it eats both vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Coconuts, mangoes, sugar cane, eggs of other creatures etc are other major foods of aye-aye. The diet of the aye-aye is largely wood-boring grubs, which are found under the bark of trees. The aye-aye uses its long middle finger to carefully tap the wood, and it uses
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Green Hill Community Center - Case Study Example According to Worth (2011), all nonprofit organizations must be managed except the very small organizations, in order to meet societyÃ¢â¬â¢s demands and expectations as well as to avoid the risks to their survival. The nonprofit sector has gained augmented attention due to its dramatic growth and increased assets; it has gained the status of a consequential part of the economy that cannot be ignored (Craver, 2006). Therefore, the stakeholders including the legislature, media and civil society demand the accountability of the assets entrusted to the nonprofit organizations and results achieved through these assets (Worth, 2011). Analysis of Mission of the Greenhill Community Center According to Worth (2011), nonprofit organizations do not indulge in issuing stock shares or the distribution of surplus funds to shareholders and their main aim is to utilize available resources for achieving their mission. Every nonprofit organization must have a clear and concise mission statement and it should devise objectives to attain these aims (Chait, Ryan and Taylor, 2005). The case study clearly shows that Greenhill Community Center has a definite and well defined mission; the main focus of the center is to provide social services to the people of Coastal city. Its main aim is to provide human service programs based on learning and growth by maintaining an intergenerational setting; these programs are designed for the babies, school going children, elderly people etc and entail music classes, day care, after school programs and programs for elderly. The analysis of the case study indicates that staff, board members and trustees are working in order to achieve this aim on t heir respective levels. The mission of the nonprofit organization (NPO) is the most clear when it is founded, the founders are aware of the basic purpose of fundraising and the difference it is going to make (Herman and Heimovics, 2005). With the passage of time, the addition of new programs due to the changing environment and needs decreases the attention to the basic programs (Worth, 2011). The same is happening with the GCC, its focus has diverted towards management, financial and diversification problems due to the influx of refugees from Southeast Asia. Board Members Responsibilities and Governance Structure Worth (2011) illustrated that governing boards of a NPO were responsible for ensuring the achievement of mission as well as the overall welfare of the organization. In GCC, the responsibilities are divided among four board members and they are directors of their respective departments. These members are led by the chief executive; the governance structure of the GCC along w ith the responsibilities of four board members is shown in Fig 1. Figure 1: Organizational Structure of Greenhill Community Centre The board has important role to play in the fund-raising along with some trustees who take active part in the fund-raising. According to Worth (2011), most of the NPOs are termed as corporations and the members of the governing boards are termed as directors under the law, the same
HRM- BMW - Essay Example BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s move shows that management is not the lone representative of a business; it is bigger than that- there are lessons to be learned and given from and by everyone involved. A cohesive business is a successful one, and a company can only be cohesive when all levels of employees believe that they can speak up and make a difference. The more people who can get involved in the process, the more it will be an accurate reflection of the company and communityÃ¢â¬â¢s true set of standards and complementary goals. #3 I believe that both employees and managers would think the new policy is fair. The only potential obstacle may be that employees or the public might see the move as a calculated response to media pressure due to recent corporate scandals involving inflated executive bonuses. However, as the case states, Ã¢â¬Å"BMW has been discussing its compensation practices for months, and claims its announcement has nothing to do with a larger debate about public accountability of executivesÃ¢â¬ (BusinessWeek, 2011). The linked bonus program shows a link between management and employees in the company, and an expansion of vertical communication that will, I believe, make the line workers feel more valued and responsible, thus increasing their productivity as well as their company loyalty. REFERENCE BusinessWeek Case (2011).
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Gene cloning (Clone human gene from cDNA libraries...) - Essay Example First, cloning is the separation or isolation of genetically homogenous strain of an organism (Lassen et al., 2005). Organisms at the same genetic level are identical within a clone. In most cases, bacteria, phages and even higher plants are cloned by the isolation of a single cell from the organism of interest and allowing the isolated cell to form a colony or an entire plant. In more specific terms, cDNA cloning entails the isolation of single but self-replicating organism followed by an amplification of its cell (Kfoury, 2007). However, there are certain conditions that should be met for such a technique to be treated as cDNA cloning. That is, such an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA must contain the target cDNA. In cases where the interest of a researcher is in any cDNA produced by a given organism, it would not matter the type of cDNA produced. That is, any cDNA would work. The key and most difficult issue in many cloning studies on CDNA is never the isolation of CDNA but the selection of the CDNA of interest among many cDNAs. A DNA library on the other hand refers to a collection of various sequences of DNA combined into one vector (Kfoury, 2007). Thus, a CDNA library has sequences that are complementary to messenger RNAs. A vector refers to an organism that is designed for experimental purposes and self-replicates. In many experiments, vectors are made from bacteriophages, plasmids, retroviruses and animal viruses (Lassen et al., 2005). Vectors must have a system by which they reproduce, which is the essence genetic science. Before delving deep into the techniques used to clone from CDNA libraries, it is importance to overview a few cloning strategies. Cloning Strategies and Methods First among the recommended cloning strategies is the necessity of acquiring a library that contains the required sequence. Second, the clones of interest should be isolated. Third, formal tests to help ensure that the correct clones of interest have been isolated need to be developed. One method of creating human genes from CDNA is referred to as the Rapid Amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) (McLaren, 2000). The known strengths of RACE are that it is inexpensive and a powerful tool for acquiring full-range CDNA, even for partially known sequences. In this technique, which begins with a mixture of mRNAs, non-specification anchors and gene-specific primers generated from the known regions of the gene, it is possible to identify substitute transcripts of a gene for partial as well as complete sequence of only one known transcript (McLaren, 2000). This technique is used to obtain a full-range sequence of a cellÃ¢â¬â¢s RNA transcript. In the first step of the RACE process, reverse transcription in which an unknown end section of a transcript is copied by use of a known sequence from the middle of the transcript results in a CDNA copy of the RNA transcript. The copied region is bounded by the known sequence and either the 5' or 3' end. Screening of cDNA Libraries and D NA Synthesis of CDNA Inserts The other techniques by which human genes may be obtained from CDNA are screening of CDNA libraries and DNA synthesis of CDNA inserts. Screening of cDNA libraries, by transcript-specific RT-PCR cloning is particularly appropriate in situations where a labeled CDNA probe is not available. In this technique, it is the knowledge about a CDNAÃ¢â¬â¢
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
General System Theory and The Internet Design Idea - Essay Example The simplest definition of Ã¢â¬ËInternetÃ¢â¬â¢ is Ã¢â¬Å"A worldwide system of interconnected networks and computersÃ¢â¬ . A more technical newer version is "A worldwide system of interconnected networks that use the Transmission Control Protocol - Internet protocol" (TCP/IP) (ibid). J.C.R. Licklider, a U.S. scientist wrote in 1962 about interaction through a Ã¢â¬ËGalactic NetworkÃ¢â¬â¢ (Schnarr, 2008): Each network should be able to work on its own, requiring no modification to participate in the Internet. Each would have a gateway, to link it to the outside world, a larger computer. This gateway would cut-down workload and to speed up traffic, with no censorship. Packages would go through the fastest available route, bypassing jams. The gateways would always be open and its operating principles would be freely available to all networks, motivating them to carry out independent but coalescing research (ibid). The Americans set up their Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1957 (Griffiths, 2002). By 1968/69, research had developed sufficiently for ARPA to publish a plan for a computer network system called ARPANET (ibid). Data packet switching technology, invented in England in 1965 was imported for integration with their system. Packet switching allowed travel of messages from point A to point B across a network (ibid). Surviving a nuclear attack was not Arpanets motivation, nor was building a global communications network (Griffiths, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"It was not about communicating over distances either, as we understand the net today. Arpanet was about time-sharing. Time sharing permitted research institutions to use other institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ computers when they had calculations to do for which they did not have the facility. This was the prime vision of the named luminaries about the InternetÃ¢â¬ (Peter, 2003). "What the Arpanet didnt address was the issue of
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Financial Enviroment of Healthcare Organizations - Essay Example Sharing financial information with the employees of a business should be done by corporations even if they are not required do so such as private firms. A lot of different aspects of the financial performance of the firm should be released. The four major financial statements of a company are the income statement, balance sheet, statement of retained earnings, and the statement of cash flow (Garrison & Noreen, 2002). These statements are prepared upon completion of the accounting cycle. An employee of the firm can perform an evaluation of the financial performance of the company using ratio analysis if he is given the financial statements of the firm. The five categories of ratio analysis are liquidity, asset turnover, profitability, market, and financial leverage. Analyzing the cost structure and expenses of a firm is important for an employee. Companies whose cost structures are too high are at risk of downsizing or closing its facilities (Capella, 2008). The income statement shows the expense accounts of an organization. Profits are obtained by subtracting total expenses from the revenues of a firm. Costs are classified as fixed or variable costs. Fixed costs do not change over time, while variable costs change as a company increases or decreases production output (Thomason, 2014). An important accounting metric that stakeholder groups such as employees need to understand and be informed about is the breakeven point. The breakeven point is the amount of sales that a company needs to generate to cover all its fixed and variable costs. Profit at the breakeven point is cero. The formula to calculate the breakeven point in units sold is fixed expenses divided by unit contribution margin. Unit contribution margin is calculated dividing sales price minus variable cost per unit. The employees must know whether its company is breaking even because the solvency of the firm is dependent on it. Controlling the inventory of a business is
Sunday, September 22, 2019
College Debate Essay In Katherine PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The Value Of a College DegreeÃ¢â¬ , Katherine answers the question to whether continuing education beyond high school is worth it or not. Since college costs are increasing radically every year, many students and parents arenÃ¢â¬â¢t considering a two- or four-year college education a necessity. Her essay is reaches out to those parents and students who are in doubt, with the use of cited evidence and her many research studies, she is determined into convincing those who question attending college to pursue further education. Although the question of whether continuing education beyond high school is worth it or not remains unsettled by many, it should definitely be considered. First off, a valuable college education brings out the best in a person; it makes them stronger and builds an immense amount of confidence. Some may consider pursuing a college education as something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s completely out of reach, but I might just have to say that youÃ¢â¬â¢re wrong. A college education not only builds strength and confidence, it also helps you grow. College students are situated in different types of situations, environments and or settings in which they encounter all kinds of people. To explain much further, as said in a source found in Google: Ã¢â¬Å"College education has a profound effect on a person and his or her life. It helps people choose their careers more wisely and the college experience makes people become more confident and can make better and well judged decisions. Ã¢â¬ (Google. com, Value of College Education) A College education develops growth in terms of adulthood and maturity, built from experience. Many high school students believe that doing well academically would be enough. That is only somewhat true; most colleges consider well-rounded students, like those who participate in extra curricular actives, activities such as being involved in sports, volunteering, and community work. Keeping an open mind when considering college selections is a very important factor when it comes to decision making. Parents and students should not allow money or locations limit their thinking when researching schools. By attending college fairs, and purchasing college guide books theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn about colleges that Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢, in an overall aspect. Scheduling interviews, preferably on-campus interviews, will allow students to demonstrate genuine interest and allows him or her the opportunity to make a valuable link. All in all, the key factor isnÃ¢â¬â¢t getting a college degree itself but the degree owner. A college education is now a necessity, and the average American couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly make it through these times and those that are to come without one. Ã¢â¬Å"Get in(worry about the money later. Ã¢â¬
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Monash Carbon Footprint report This report presents interpreted data after Monash university conducted a carbon footprint assessment between 2005 till 2014.Ã Introduction Today we can see for ourselves the damage we have caused to our home planet. overshoot is known as the consumers demands for earths resources are going beyond the level which the earth can regenerate. According to dahl(2008), improving global governance and our ability to manage the earths resources is thus a key part of any solution. Preventing overshoot and collapse is a challenge of our time. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Monash university has assessed their carbon footprint from 2005 to 2014. Monash university consists of the Berwick, Caulfield, Clayton, Parkville, and Peninsula campuses within all of Australia, Carbon dioxide(co2) is emitted daily when we account for the burning of fossil fuels to supply heat and to cool rooms, to run appliances, transportation, and the management of water and waste products. According to the united states environmental protection agency, co2 is then trapped within our earths atmosphere and are termed as greenhouse gases as co2 is a direct threat to our ozone layer and is also a major contributor to global warming. There are three scopes consisting of either direct or indirect. Monash universitys gross total emissions started out with 168,838 tonnes of co2-e/year after being recorded in 2005 and at the end of 2014, Monash universitys gross total emissions were calculated at 190,874 tonnes of c02-e/year. Characterizing the scopes Scope 1: this is a direct method of emitting greenhouse gases (GHG) by Monash universitys use of natural gas at all sites, the types of fuel used for transportation, the types of fuel used for other purposes, use of appliances such as refrigerants, methane emissions, and commercial c02. Scope 2: this is an indirect consequence by monash university of GHG emissions released for their use of electricity which is purchased from another party. Scope 3: this is also an indirect way of GHG emissions being released into the earths atmosphere which generally accounts for electricity, natural gas, paper/cardboard waste, food waste, recyclables, transport fuel, water waste, air travel, taxi cabs, fire extinguishers, and public transport. GHG emissions from scope 1 according to marty mccarthy (2015), scientists gathered a national study was taken where over a 1000 cows were tested and the method of measuring the ghg emissions under the factor of livestock methane is by putting the livestock animal in chamber which can be used to measure methane. Then the next step is to monitor the air in and out and then calculate the concentration in that of the air mixture. It can be observed that the emissions have tripled over the course of 9 years. A reason to this might be the amount of food that is been fed to the livestock animal, or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. upon checking the ghg emissions within all of the sites of monash university, it is most important to check the fuels used for transport purposes and to separate the types of fuel since different fuels produce different emiisions. according to the national greenhouse account factors (2014), there is a formula which calculates the ghg emisiions released by different fuel types. there is a trend to be seen and it could be seen that the ghg emissions are slowing declining after each year. A reason to this might be the adaptation of hybrids and electric carsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ the ghg emissions can be measure by the equation given below, scope 1 Refrigerants When we use refrigerants, we never account for the harmful emissions that are released into our atmosphere. Beck in the day, ghg emissions like chlourofluoro carbons(CFC), halons, and hydrochlorofluro carbons (HCFC) went unnoticed for a very long time. To combat CFCs , halons, HCFCs, substitues such as hydroflouro carbons (HFC) and perfluoro carbons (PFC) have been used to regulate the substances that deplete the ozone layer. This occurance was due to the amendment of the montreal protocol in 1990 which is known to be widely successful due to the universal ratification of fighting ozone depleting substances (ODS). Emissions from regrigerators and ari conditioners can be a resulted from the manufacturing process of the product, from leakages, or from poor service of the operation life of the products. Any reduction of the ODSs can have huge potential benefits since ODSs pose a threat greater than 1000 times that of co2. during the period of assessing monsh univeritisys carbon footprin t, it can be see that there is a linear trend where ghg emissions are increasing over time. This can be a result of opening up new builings within the campuses and the addition of commercial unitary air contioning units to have comfortable room temperatures in the given buildings, or it can be from the transport of refrigerated goods, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Scope 2 electricity The ghg emissions from the comsumption of purchased electricity from the grid has a physically toll on our environment but this is not a direct result from monash university as aforementioned. The burning and processing of coal, natural gas, or the refinement and transport of crude oil(petroleum) can have the direct response of ghg emission released into our environment. Emissions from electricity (scope 2) can be meure by the equation below, According to scope 2 guidance by GHG protocol, there are two methods to determine for the emission associated with electricity consumption. The first metheod is the location-based method, where it can be applied to every grid, and it focues on the connection between collective comsumer demand for electricity and how much emisiions re leased from the local electricity generated. The other method which is market-based method, focuses on hoiw much electricity is consumed by the choices of the consumer. Observing Monash Univeristys scope 2 emissions, is can be seen in the graph that the lowest reading of GHG emissions occurred in 2005, and throughout the years of recording scope 2 emissions, it can be seen the number fluctuates each year till the period of 2009 till 2014 where the number have a staggering amount where the ghg emissions ranges around 120, 000 tonnes of CO2-e per year, but during 2014, the ghg emissions have sort of been regulated. A reason for the increase of ghg emission s might be negotiating with a company whose primary source of energy might be from coal, and a way to reduce this would be to switch to a low carbon electricity supplier, or to purchase certifictaes from low carbon energy generation. Scope 3 https://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/fung_01/ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-14/impact-of-cattle-on-methane-emissions-downgraded/7027088 http://www.chlorinated-solvents.eu/index.php/regulatory-compliance/ods-regulation http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/ozone/montreal-protocol http://ghgprotocol.org/files/ghgp/Scope%202%20Guidance_Final.pdf http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/NGER/About-the-National-Greenhouse-and-Energy-Reporting-scheme/Greenhouse-gases-and-energy http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/DocumentAssets/Documents/NGER%20Energy%20production%20and%20consumption.pdf http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement/publications/national-greenhouse-accounts-factors-dec-2014 https://www.monash.edu/environmental-sustainability/get-involved/staff/green-program https://www.monash.edu/environmental-sustainability/get-involved/students/do-one-thing https://www.monash.edu/environmental-sustainability/campus-initiative/energy/renewable-energy http://www.greenpower.gov.au/About-Us/ https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/01/health/antarctic-ozone-layer-healing/ http://sciencing.com/co2-deplete-ozone-layer-4828.html http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/NGER/About-the-National-Greenhouse-and-Energy-Reporting-scheme/Greenhouse-gases-and-energy http://www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/faq http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement/publications/nger-technical-guidelines-2014 http://www.ghgonline.org/othershfcs.htm https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en https://www.epa.gov/ods-phaseout http://www.energyaction.com.au/energy-procurement/electricity-procurement http://www.ghgprotocol.org/scope_2_guidance http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2015/2015-Intergenerational-Report http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2015/2015%20Intergenerational%20Report/Downloads/PDF/2015_IGR.ashx https://www.mla.com.au/Research-and-development/Environment-sustainability/National-livestock-methane-program https://www.monash.edu/environmental-sustainability/our-commitment/environmental-sustainability-policy https://www.monash.edu/policy-bank/management/facilities-services/enviro-procedures http://iefworld.org/ddahl08d.htm https://www.monash.edu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/783617/Environmental-Sustainability-Policy-Australia-only.pdf https://phys.org/news/2007-11-atmosphere-carbon.html http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement/tracking-emissions http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/da7bde5c-1be2-43f7-97d7-d7d85bb9ad6c/files/nger-technical-guidelines-2014.pdf http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/5e11ecad-6d23-4e4b-bf9d-d4630a4e523b/files/nger-technical-guidelines-2012.pdf https://carbonneutral.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Carbon-Offsetting-and-Carbon-Neutralilty-Explained.pdf https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/fugitiveemissions.pdf http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2015/2015%20Intergenerational%20Report/Downloads/PDF/2015_IGR.ashx
Friday, September 20, 2019
Report on Sonys Case Study Major Question: Outline evaluate Sonys strategic position at the end of the case study, including its management change. What strategic changes (if any) would you now recommend to Sonys management? Minor Question: Analyse Sonys resources, Capabilities Competencies as depicted in the case, explain why it has grown successfully in the competitive consumer electronics industry. As an atypical Japanese Corporation, Comment in the role played by Sonys corporate Culture? Introduction. This report is based on Sony Corporation. The report below is structured focusing on the issues provided as question for the Case study in the seminar group. There is a brief History Culture followed by the SWOT Analysis Financial Analysis, followed by the management change at Sony. Finally there are a few recommendation followed up with conclusion references. This case study was Robin John, from London South Bank University. 2. Acknowledgement We as a team would like to thank Robin John Dr. Leslie Gadman for their support and providing excellent knowledge about the topic, the case study and presentation feedback which has enabled us to deliver this report in acceptable form. 3. HISTORY CULTURE. The Sony Corporation is now a $ 124 billion (2009) Company with approximately 180,500 employees (2008). Sony was formed in 1946 by Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita. It was initially know as Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; in English language Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Company. The name Sony was chosen as a strategy which would help them to Globalise as the Co-Founder Morita had the vision to see early that there was a world rather than pure Japanese market for their Innovations. The first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name didnt change to Sony until January 1958. The current Sony Corporation has a unique culture which is firmly rooted in its history especially in relationship to its two founders, Ibuka and Morita. They both were geniuses above their business talents. Both gave insights and visions in what the company should make and how it should be made. Ibuka, especially, gave constant advice and suggestions to the engineers involved in projects from the earlier on transistor radios to Walkmans. This created the umbrella strategy in which Sony operates under, where the top management gives the general direction in which the lower engineers actively learns, develops and improves on the vision/idea. Therefore, although there is a planned direction, the actual product development through launching is emergent with great flexibility. Although the research and development section of Sony differs greatly from other companies with its great flexibility, Sony, in its essence is still a traditional Japanese company in many ways. There is life-time employment, with strong norms and values which in turn create strategies through their actions. Status is given (the crystal award) instead of bonuses (not significant amount) for superior achievement. There is also the strong seniority system such as the mentor and apprentice relationship that is typical of a Japanese firm. All this can be classified as the cultural school in which strategy formation is of collective behaviour. Collective vision and stress on human resource, which is typical of many Japanese, can be clearly seen in the mission statement Management Policies. Sony Corp has retained good things of Japanese Culture hasnt been reluctant to adopt culture which is not atypical Japanese in nature, which has resulted in building these huge electronic giant sustain it for more than five decades, looks for a future which is very bright. 4. SONYS CAPABILITIES, COMPETENCIES RESOURCES Sony Corporation is considered one of the worlds most successful companies, operating in the electronics, games, music, films and financial services industry (Hanson et al, 2001). Sony is known for creating products that stimulate the senses and refresh the spirit (Sony, 2007). Effectively managing a combination of its resources, capabilities and core competencies, has allowed Sony to create a strong sustainable competitive advantage. Assessment of Sony Corporations Resources and Capabilities Sony Corporation is committed on its efforts to continuously develop original technology that generates a high appeal to the general public due to its quality and cost effectiveness. Over the years, Sony Corporation has been able to build a substantial base meant to boost the companys designing and manufacturing capabilities. This enables the company to bring to markets truly original and more importantly mobile devices that are reasonably priced. The research and development team of Sony Corporation also plays a crucial role in the achievement of this feat. The company also believes that making a positive impact in the society through their quality products is the very essence of being a manufacturer. Sony Corporations Competitive Advantage Economies of Scale and Scope in manufacturing and research and development arising from its numerous facilities situated in Japan, the United States and other countries worldwide. Unique Quality Technology owing to heavy emphasis on research Sony Corporations commitment to research development activities has always been one of its top strategies to remain competitive in the market. Differentiated Products Through the production and marketing of differentiated products originating from their research and development activities, Sony Corporation is able to create its own firm-specific advantages. The continuous pursuit of research and development processes enables Sony Corporation to produce a steady stream of originally differentiated products which makes it difficult for competitors to find substitutes. Because of this differentiated approach, Sony Corporation is able to market their products worldwide, which enables them in turn to maximize the returns on research and development expenditures. Sony Corporations competitive advantages could be sustained provided the company would continue to focus on its core competencies. However, the company also has to be aware of the latest technological. Sony Corporations Resources: Resources refer to factors that a company owns controls and uses for the purpose of creating value (Hill et al, 2007). Sonys numerous tangible and intangible resources help to determine its distinctive competency, thus leading to maintaining a competitive advantage. When identifying Sonys resources, both its tangible and intangible assets are included. Tangible resources include assets that are financial in nature, or have physical properties (Hill et al, 2007). In 2007, Sony recorded a sales and operating cash flow of $70,303 million, an increase of 10.5 percent from 2006 (Sony United, 2007), as part of its financial resources. Land, buildings, machinery, and equipment are also part of Sonys tangible resources, and are worth approximately $14 million (Sony United, 2007). Intangible resources include those non-physical assets that the company uses to produce goods or provide services, or expects to generate future productive benefits (Hill et al, 2007). The Sony brand is considered one of the worlds most recognisable and trusted brands and was ranked 21st in the Business Week/Interbred list of the Worlds 100 Most Valuable Brands with an estimated value of US$14 billion (Singh et al, 2005). The Sony brand is associated with superior quality, innovation and style (Sony United, 2007), in the minds of its customers. 5. Sonys SWOT Analysis. Opportunities Development of new technology Growing trend customer base (Focus on BRIC Nations) Target consistent profitability in core hardware businesses (TV, game and digital imaging) Diversify in game producing for its hardware. Listen to Voice of Customer. Easy to use products. Threats New substitute products emerging Price competition. Economic pressure. Losing the dominance in key product categories.(TV, P.S, D.I) Due to poor financial performance could have less money for RD. Strength Strong sales marketing capabilities Business location or product exclusivity High quality product Excellent customer service Cost advantage (Discount) Good distribution network Weakness Weak financial performance (Low Profitability Low ROCE) Lacking a customer viewpoint Products with many feature but difficult to use. Lack of hit products Development of similar products Patent problem in the whole Industry. Particular 1997 Millions of Yen 2009 Millions of Yen Total Electronically Business 3,930,292 (69.4%) 5,032,920 (65.1%) Music 570,119 (10.1%) 50,541 (0.6%) Picture 438,551(7.7%) 717,513 (9.3%) Insurance 227,920(4%) 523,307 (6.8%) Games 408,335(7.2%) 984,855 (12.7%) Others 87,917(1.6%) 471,398 (5.5%) Total Revenue 5,658,253 7,729,993 (+136.62%) 6. Comparing Sales Revenue by Business Area for 1997 2009. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. Particular 2008 2009 Sales 8,871,414 7,729,993 (-12.87%) R D Expenses 520,568 497,297 (-4.47%) Employees 180,500 171,300 (-5.1%) Profit Margin 4.2% -1.3% R D to Sales 5.9% 6.4% Current Ratio 1.25 time 0.95 time Gearing Ratio 21.04% 22.27% Return on Equity 16.4% -5.9% Roce 6.65% -2.13% 6.2 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS. Sonys financial condition is good but needs to be better for a matured Company like Sony which is in existence since 1946 more than 6 decades. It is acceptable but should be a top priority for the Management to make it better. Below mentioned are few observations: Majority of its earning in electronic Industry. Earning from music has reduced considerably could be because of piracy issues or Late M.Js bad public city. The best diversified product is gaming, so should look to diversify more in this area. (Game MFG.) Major problem with SONY is its low profitability. Gearing ratio is 22.27% which is good as has a scope for future borrowing if required. RD has just reduced by 4% ROCE Return for share holders are major concern for SONY. 7. Style of leadership and management The leadership style of Akio Morita the co-founder of Sony Corporation included the ability to imagine, design, implement and develop new products, marketing, brand management strategies and human resources skill as well. Akio Morita resigned from the post of the Chairman, during which he positioned Sony as the worlds most successful consumer electronics company. Sony was ranked 37 on the Fortune 500 global list. Under Moritas leadership, Sony developed many new products and technologies. One of the other key success factors of Sony was Moritas people skills and his trust in his employees. Sony continued its tradition of offering innovative products after Moritas death in 1999. Sony has been a modern Japanese company as they have promoted young Idei to President of Sony when he was 57 years small according to Japanese standard. It was under his leadership that they have recovered from the 1995 crisis have posted the highest ever profit. Idei also launched Transformation 60 which was not of a much success. The main purposes of Transformation 60 were: Reduce cost by 300 Billion Yen. Decrease workforce by 20000. Achieve profit margin of 10% march 06. By the early 21st century, Sony was facing several problems due to the slowdown in the global economy, but then they recovered well under the leadership of Sir Howard Stringer who was made the CEO Chairman of the Sony Corporation. A Non Japanese to senior management position was not a typical Japanese culture but has given them the desired result. So as a whole Sony Corporation has always been under a good senior management for all the years. 8. RECOMMENDATION Building of Strategy: Sony as a much international company with major branches in Europe and the United States and stocks listed in 23 stock exchanges, the Japanese cultural school strategy is not sufficient. Becoming a mature company, the strategy should also change to more profit orientated. There should also be greater emphasis on market share, especially in Japan where Sonys market is shrinking. Strategy should be aimed at greater control and communication between manager and workers, especially the engineers in the RD Department. Diversification: One direction which is possible is concentrating more on electronic know how in non-consumer business. Currently, the buyer has much more choosing power and competition is fierce. The competitors are also able to copy the product in a much shorter time. To create larger profit margins, Sony should concentrate on the business sector and industries, supplying high technology equipment and parts. This would make full use of the RD Department. Although the Sony name is often related to expensive, high-profit end of the market, the organization should also expand its product range by offering lower priced, simpler featured products that would compete head on with others. With the lower priced line, Sony can also increase its market shares in both overseas and Japanese markets. Alliance and Cooperation: Sony should try to become a leader instead of a maverick. The difference is great, the leader, besides a great innovator, should also be a great coordinator. Internally, the different RD groups should cooperate more. The product line should also be made more compatible with one another, i.e. no more secret projects. Products should be made with higher added value and longer life rather than making frequent model changes. This is also a shift from a manufacturer-orientated mentality to a consumer-orientated mentality, which is a way to save natural resources. The brand-line compatibility also builds brand loyalty for consumers. Cost Cutting: Cost cutting is important because RD plays an integral part in the success of Sony and cannot be cut drastically although it gobbles up 10% of sales. Therefore, the only way to improve profit margins is to cut cost. Sony is not fully making use of other lower cost areas in the world, especially Asian countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines etc. By setting up factories in these countries, Sony can take advantage of their cheap labour and also get a head start in their budding consumer markets. Products should be refined instead of reinvented so that there would be less set up cost and greater automation could be achieved. This could also be seen as a long term strategy. Integration of production, design and marketing: In many ways, designing and developing of a product is separate from the production and marketing. RD should listen more to what the consumer needs and then innovate instead of always creating new product for markets. With great freedom, the designing team should also take on greater responsibility in making the product fit to the current production pattern and marketing aims. They should also be made more responsible to the profit and loss of the particular product. Empowering these three separate groups creates conflict, but it also brings these separate efficient groups together achieving synergy. Implementation: Internally, strategy should be reviewed beginning with renewing the corporate goals. It should integrate together both the Japanese work ethic and its western counterparts. This is possible, because Sony is a multinational corporation with employees and customers in many different countries. This involves writing the importance of profits and its responsibility to shareholders in the statement. Integration of the company, the designing, production and marketing should be encouraged, with increased communication between each group and the management acting as liaison and guidance. The management should be providing the organization with specific goals and strategies for the short and long term. These changes are intended to balance business Vs engineering. Setting up alliances with fellow electronic manufacturers / competitor is crucial to mutual benefit so should be pursued as soon as possible. 9. Conclusion. The reputed brand name is one the Sonys strength, but on the other hand, many competitors start to see Sony as their target and main competitor, which will inflict various threats against Sony. Sony also needs to concentrates on improving itself.Ã They collect Voice of Customer (VOC), which directly reflect the responses, expectations or suggestions from end-users. It could be observed that Sony is positively dealing with its competitors, through learning from failure and looking for room to further improve. Such strategy helps minimize the probabilities that their customers would turn to other competitors. It aims at retaining its present customers and keeping their Number 1 market position. Sony made full efforts to support the environment from 1989. Sony is using blue ocean strategy on the business. Toward this end, Sony has sponsored many package redesign projects and committed to considering the environment, not only to create environmentally-friendly design but also to reduce material use. Due to this heartfelt customer service, high-quality, reliable products that Sonys customers can use with confidence. At the end of this case study Sony is not in a very strong strategic position but it is also not in a very bad strategic position. The position of Sony is in between. The conclusion is that change is needed in Sony. However, even with strategically and structure change, the Sony spirit of Technovation(technological Innovation) should remain intact because that is what made Sony grow and would make it stay strong.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Assisted Suicide and the Supreme Court The Court upheld two state laws absolutely prohibiting assisted suicide, stating that Washington state's law does not violate constitutional guarantees of "liberty" (Washington v. Glucksberg) and that New York's similar law does not violate constitutional guarantees of equal protection (Vacco v. Quill). Oregon's law selectively permitting assisted suicide for certain patients had been found by one federal district court to violate equal protection; that ruling was not before the Supreme Court. See Lee v. Oregon, 891 F.Supp. 1429 (D. Or. 1995), vacated on other grounds, 107 F.3d 1382 (9th Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 118 S. Ct. 328 (1997). As Chief Justice Rehnquist said in his majority opinion in Glucksberg: "Lee, of course, is not before us... and we offer no opinion as to the validity of the Lee courts' reasoning. In Vacco v. Quill..., however, decided today, we hold that New York's assisted-suicide ban does not violate the Equal Protection clause." Washington v. Glucksberg, 117 S. Ct . 2258, 2262 n. 7 (1997) (emphasis added). To this day no appellate court in the country has ruled on the constitutionality of a law like Oregon's. The Court also said nothing about assigning this issue to state as opposed to federal jurisdiction. In reviewing the Nation's longstanding tradition against assisted suicide, it cited federal enactments such as the Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 alongside state laws. Illustrating the government's interest in protecting terminally ill patients, the Court favorably cited an earlier decision upholding the federal Food and Drug Administration's authority "to protect the terminally ill, no less than other patients," from life-endangering drugs. Washington v. Glucksberg, 117 S. Ct. at 2272, quoting United States v. Rutherford, 442 U.S. 544, 558 (1979). What the Court did rule is that laws prohibiting assisted suicide (whether state or federal) are constitutionally valid and serve several important and legitimate interests. Excerpts follow: Washington v. Glucksberg The question presented in this case is whether Washington's prohibition against "caus[ing]" or "aid[ing]" a suicide offends the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. We hold that it does not... In almost every State -- indeed, in almost every western democracy -- it is a crime to assist a suicide. The States' assisted-suicide bans are not innovations. Rather, they are longstanding expressions of the States' commitment to the protection and preservation of all human life.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Cupid in the Kitchen Ã Ã Ã Ã As a reader in the 1990's it's tempting to see Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "Cupid in the Kitchen" as revolutionary and ahead of its time. She proposes the complete professionalization of the nutritive and execretive functions of society, a radical, if not revolutionary notion. However, in the light of the fin-de-siecle birth of the modern feminist movement, Gilman is but one voice in many crying for economic and social justice for women. In effect, the rhetorical situation of 1898 demanded and created this discourse as it does all discourse (Bitzer 5). Gilman's "Cupid" is a natural and elegant response to the conditions which created it: the continuing surplus of unmarried women in Britain and America as verified by census data, and the persistent injustice of the forced domestic servitude of married women. Ã One need only look as far as the literature of the 1890's to see that women's issues influenced the thinking of many intellectuals. The discourse of the period is obsessed with the proper roles for women, debate about suffrage, and considerations of what to do with all the "odd women" who couldn't find husbands. As early as 1860 census data indicated that more and more women were remaining single and unmarried (Showalter viii). In an essay written for The Edinburgh Review Harriet Martineau argued that because there were not enough husbands to go around, girls should be educated and trained to be self-supporting (Showalter ix). By the end of the century the numbers of unmarried women lacking economic support reached crisis proportions. This event, as much or more than any other, precipitated the feminist movement of the late nineteenth an... ... surprise. Economics drove the rhetorical situation in which "Cupid" was produced as it drives the rhetorical situation in which we return to Gilman for enlightenment now. Similarities in the rhetorical situations of reader, subject and author create the common ground that makes Gilman seem so topical, but it is the clarity of her vision and the simple logic of her proposition that makes her work so remarkable. Ã Works Cited Ã Bitzer, Lloyd F. "The Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy & Rhetoric 1.1 (1968): 1-14. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Women and Economics: Cupid in the Kitchen." A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. ed. Lee A. Jacobus (Boston: St. Martin's, 1990) 208-19. Showalter, Elaine. introduction. The Odd Women, by George Gissing (New York: Pennguin, 1983) vii-xxvi. Ã Ã Ã *Ã Ã Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Characterization and Quantification of Active Compounds of Black pepper (Piper Nigrum): AbstractThe objectives of the study were to investigate the presence of phytochemical compounds from the extract of piper nigrum, using methanolic extraction. It showed the presence of alkaloid, flavanoids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, phytosterols, and tannins. The phytochemical compounds were also screened by GC-MS method.A total 21 bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area,retention time,molecular weight.GC-MS analysis of P.nigrum revealed the existence of major compounds like caryophyllene ,delta.3-carene as well as Cinene. The results will be useful for further study in future to explore the biosynthetic activity of black pepper. Introduction:Black Pepper:Black Pepper, the tropical plant family, Piperaceae is a reliable source of diverse biologically dynamic phytochemicals (Parmar et al., 1997) and food grade spice. Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) (Piperaceae) celebrated as Ã¢â¬Å"Dark GoldÃ¢â¬ and furthermore known as Ã¢â¬Å"Ruler of SpicesÃ¢â¬ is one of the vital rural products (Ankegowda and Krishnamurthy 2012). The extracts of Pepper can be viably used as a source of biopesticide material. The most broadly perceived specie of this family is Piper Nigrum or dark pepper which apart from culinary applications is utilized as a part of various ayurvedic details because of its different curative properties (Srinivas et al., 2005). Piperine is one of the significant compounds that is extracted from Piper Nigrum. Many other unsaturated amides have since been distinguished in Piper species from every single tropical locale of the world (Parmar et al 1997). Piperine is the significant compound that causes the impactful and spicy flavor of pepper and has indicated many pharmacological exercises, for example, insecticidal, calming, pain relieving, and so forth. (Khajuria et al., 1989). The wide variety of auxiliary plant mixes found in Piper were recommended as potential leads for novel bug sprays (Miyakado et al., 1989) while numerous mixtures are utilized as a part of conventional control of insecticides that are vectors of ailment (Okorie and Ogunro 1992) and harm stored crops (Sighamony et al. 1986; Baier and Webster 1992; Mbata et al., 1995; Ke'?Ã ¨ta et al., 2000). Early examinations with P. nigrum seed extracts showed that piperamides were in charge of the harmfulness of the extracts to the adzuki bean weevil Callosobruchuschinensis L. (Miyakado et al., 1980). For the treatment of infectious diseses on Earth pharmacologists ,microbiologists and natural products chemists are relying on plant derived dietary supplements as well as phytochemicals.(Pandey et al.,2015).The objective of this research is to identify and characterize the active compounds in crude extract of Black pepper. Key words: Piper nigrum L, Phytochemical Screening,GC-MS.Material and Method:The seeds of Black pepper were purchased from Qissa Khwani Bazar PeshawarExtract of Black Pepper: Seeds of black pepper 10gm were grounded in a blender and then covered with 100 ml of methanol. The grounds and methanol slurry was shaker in a mini orbital shaker for 30 min at 260 rppm and then passed through a Buchner funnel with Whatman No.1 filter paper for removing insoluble material. The methanol fraction was separated and air died ( Jyothiprabha, and Venkatachalam 2016). Identification of Active Compounds: Some plants have more than one chemical as an active principle responsible for their biological properties. Phytochemical tests was done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, triterpenes, phenolic acid and tannis. Detailed Phytochemical screening was carried out as per standard methods. (Kokate, 2000; Habone, 1999; Tiwari et al., 2011).
Monday, September 16, 2019
Nevertheless, thanks for our work on mistakes we started to see obvious the inns today; we can ;t be successful when only one leader is thinking but we can look at the robber from different perspectives and find an appropriate solution when we are discussing it collaboratively. Therefore, the contribution of everyone is essential. Personally, I think that if employees would get enough right to tell their positions and to present new ideas, big corporations could achieve better goals in the end.In my country- Astrakhan and specifically in the regions of post-Soviet countries as Russia, Ukraine or Beleaguers employees are not treated as intellectual people and because of that fact, we have a big coordination among working and ruling class. That problem among employee and employer led to the ineffective work of whole company s workers. Good example of using the idea of employee led innovation is the system of Google workers. They are provided with freedom of action and do not restricted in their workplace.The main aim of Google Corporation is to provide comfortable conditions for their workers, so they II be able to use their time properly and the work will be effective. The good side of providing such workplace for employees is that they have a freedom and by appropriate time-management, they are able to work effectively on their big projects, and also they are open to new ideas, which can be presented to administration, thanks for what Google looks at the problems from different perspectives fixing every mistake in their search tool, finding the right way to increase audience etc.Furthermore, employees work directly with product and method of its production. It can be different product: informational, engineer or just simple production of food. Administration and leaders look only at result, which was achieved by the company, but they are not well informed about how the company is working inside and what problems does it have. Important thing to mention here is that leader only knows facts that was presented to him and even if he has some information about overspending on production, he could ;t look at that problem as professional as employee, who actually works on production of those products.In this case, leaders should to work as filters, choosing the best solution and employees should to present problem and show the solution as they are more informed and experienced in this field. In other hand, cultural intent should be mentioned as it plays a major role on how employee works. Referring to my country, we have strict rules at most of governmental and business workplaces, because from the times of the Soviet Union population of Astrakhan were used to make their best only when failure led to punishment of the worker.Even living in democratic country, direct and fast reconstruction to employee led innovation is not possible as it leads to problems of workers as laziness and procrastination. That s the reason why most of national and priv ate companies still don t give full freedom of action ND speech to employees, because before we need to have a good base and experience in this field.Overall, employee led innovation is becoming popular in nowadays as companies see the profit from that system of working. It provides workers with more critical and analytical thinking participating in company's life and giving a chance to improve the sphere, where they are good. However, before the start of process employers should to prepare their workers mentally, so they Ã¢â¬ËII be able to work using that system with maximum effectiveness and profit.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Since the adherence to international social standards has become a mandatory requirement in the international business arena, the local suppliers have to be compliant to these standards in order to remain in business. There have been some significant revisions to the Bangladesh Labor Law in 2006. This newly revised law already covers a lot of the common standards like employment conditions, occupational health and safety issues as well as the ILO core labor standards. Besides being complaint to the national labor law, the suppliers must also adhere to the international standards. These international standards may be defined through their individual buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ codes of conduct or general codes of the conduct. Compliance to the buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ codes of conduct is mandatory but compliance to the general codes of conduct is optional unless the buyer accepts a specific general code as a substitute for its own audits or requirements. These voluntary monitoring or verification initiatives have taken root since the 1990s to add legitimacy and credibility to companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ social and environmental compliance programs. The comparative analysis shows that the Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 significantly covers majority of the requirements of the different general codes of conduct. This indicates that if a factory is 100% compliant to the national law, it will cover approximately 85% of the requirements of the other general codes of conduct. Hence RMG factories should be encouraged to improve their compliance with the national law as a first step towards meeting the compliance demands of the brands and retailers who they supply to. The analysis does reveal that a few requirements are not fully or partially covered by the national labor law. It should be noted that the components which are not fully covered by the Bangladesh Labor Law are either covered by the Bangladesh Constitution or are not directly applicable in the Bangladesh context. This study clearly reveals that the revised Bangladesh Labor Law along with other supporting national legislations such as the Bangladesh Building Code and the Environmental Conservation Rules as well as the overall constitutional framework of Bangladesh, provides a comprehensive guideline for factories in the RMG sector to comply with majority of all international social compliance and environmental standards. By being 100% compliant with the national labor law, a supplier has significantly met majority of the international requirements. The Bangladesh Labor Law has gone through some majority revisions in 2006 which has made it into a strong piece of legislation. However, it is not still 100% perfect. There are still few gaps and lackings which need to be adjusted and amended in the future. As implementation of the revised law is ongoing, numerous other deficiencies might gradually be identified over time. Since recent revisions just took place, another series of revisions are not anticipated in the near future. This comparative analysis of the newly revised Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 and seven general codes of conduct clearly illustrates where the commonalities and differences are. Overall, the recent revisions to the Bangladesh Labor Law and other national legislations that are associated with the RMG sector such as the Bangladesh Building Code and the Environmental Conservation Rules jointly provide comprehensive guidelines for RMG suppliers to manufacture and export products under socially and environmentally responsible working conditions which also meet majority of all prevailing international standards. 2. 1 General Codes of Conduct Definition of Codes The interest in the social situation of workers in developing countries has increased constantly over the last years in particular under civil societies and consumers in the industrialized countries. Social criteria have become an important part of consumer and investment decisions of individuals and organizations and therefore also big brands and retailers become more aware of compliance to social standards. Since Bangladesh is part of 1 A comparative analysis between the Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 and seven general codes of conduct he global market social compliance is extremely relevant for the export-oriented industry of Bangladesh, especially for the RMG sector. For competitiveness in the global markets, the compliance with environmental and social standards is a key point. Through modern information and communication technologies the economic activity of companies becomes increasingly transparent and makes it easier for the civil society to uncover and communicate social and ecological failure of multinational companies. Companies know about the vulnerability of their brand names and messages concerning bad working conditions can easily damage their image as well as the market position. A social responsible management policy is therefore in the long-term interest of the enterprise. However companies can have a positive influence on the economic development in the target countries through the introduction of social standards and on the same time improve their image and market share through social and ecologically responsible behavior. To address these issues voluntary monitoring or verification initiatives have taken root since the 1990s to add legitimacy and credibility to companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ labor compliance programs. They are all voluntary, meaning that companies opt to participate in them. Each requires member companies to adopt its respective workplace code of conduct and verifies that they have complied with organizational requirements. Today, some industries have developed or are developing codes for the entire industry. That can be best seen for the apparel and footwear sector. General Codes of Conduct as well as buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ codes are very common in this industry. These codes of conduct are rules, which companies impose upon themselves in order to embody social and ecological goals in the enterprise. Companies formulate these rules mostly for itself and partly also for the suppliers and orient themselves with the formulation at the international regulations and agreements already mentioned. Codes of conducts may also be recognized as useful instruments to build on the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ image. A lot of companies are participating in this initiatives to show their interests in improving the working conditions of their business partners/suppliers across the global. Fair trade and buying practices are a competitive advantage for many businesses. The codes show their commitment to this process. Codes of conduct may be developed through a multistakeholder approach such as ETI etc. or companies may have their own codes of conduct which are specific for their suppliers or codes could be sector specific such as for garments, food, electronics etc. 2. 2 Basis of codes Social compliance can be measured in relation to a certain standard. Concerning environmental and quality management a multiplicity of standards and certification systems already exist. The introduction of examinable social standards represents however a new challenge. Internationally recognized social standards exist, e. g. ? United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights UN Convention on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women ? ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work ? Rio Declaration on Environment and Development However these are guidelines and recommendations which can be converted voluntarily. Standards that can be certified only exist to a small extent. Most of the codes refer to these mentioned international standards, especially the ILO core labor standards. The ILO formulates international standards in the form of conventions and recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labor rights: Freedom of association The right to organize 2 A comparative analysis between the Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 and seven general codes of conduct Collective bargaining Abolition of forced labor Equality of opportunity and treatment Besides the above mentioned standards, there are other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum of the work related issues. These principles are concretized in eight ILO conventions, in each case two for the four fundamental principles mentioned (see table 1). The ILO conventions are obligatory only if they are ratified by the member states. The entire number of the ratifications increased in the last years noticeably and varies Ã¢â¬â depending upon convention Ã¢â¬â in the order of magnitude between 148 and 172. Until July 2007, 128 countries had ratified all eight conventions. Bangladesh has ratified seven out of the eight core conventions. Table 1: ILO Core-Conventions and ratifications in Bangladesh1 Standard Freedom of association and bargaining Elimination of forced and compulsory labor Elimination of discrimination Abolition of child labor Convention Convention 87 (Freedom of association) Convention 98 (Right to organize; collective bargaining) Convention 29 (Forced labor) Convention 105 (Abolition of forced labor) Convention 100 (equal remuneration) Convention 111 (employment and occupation) Convention 138 (Minimum age) Convention 182 (worst forms of child labor) Ratification Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Codes of practice develop frequently from public pressure or are preventively developed. In addition to the mentioned core labor standards these codes include general working conditions like occupational health and safety, minimum wages, leave days and working hours. Other common aspects include womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights or environmental standards. Also the implementation of a management system can be a requirement. 2. 3 How codes evolved The overall aim of social standards is to protect the workers. During the industrialization in Europe they evolved as a reaction to bad working conditions in the newly emerging factories. The depletion of large parts of the workforce moved child labor, forced labor, freedom of association and collective bargaining as well as womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in the centre of public attention. Socially responsible behavior Ã¢â¬â this means also ecologically responsible behavior Ã¢â¬â has its starting point predominantly in the developed industrialized countries. The observance of social standards must be further supervised also in these countries. The by far larger action needs lie however in developing and emerging countries. Through the increasing world-wide division of labor large parts of the production chain are located in developing countries which have deficits with the observance of social standards. While working abroad companies are supposed to be compliant to the legal regulations. In developing and emerging countries legal regulations do not always correspond to the domestic standards of the companies. So it can be difficult for companies to combine national legislation and generally recognized basic values. Even if the legislation in developing and emerging countries corresponds to the standards of the industrialized countries there are deficits in monitoring and implementation of the standards. 1 Refer to the ILO website: http://www. ilo. org/ilolex/english/docs/declworld. htm. 3 A comparative analysis between the Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 and seven general codes of conduct However an internationally defined and recognized social standard does not exist. Thus different stakeholder came up with the idea of codes of conduct to verify the compliance to international social standards. Social standards are extremely important in an industrialized world. Nowadays due to financial benefits, most companies outsource their production to developing countries where compliance to social standards is not as important. The problem is that consumers and respective governments ask for socially responsible behavior and working conditions and often the suppliers and governments of the developing countries cannot enforce or ensure compliance to these international standards. This issue has become a concern for the companies located in Europe and the USA and hence the companies came up with formulating codes of conduct which their suppliers have to adhere to if they want to do business with them. Companies started off by developing their own codes of conduct. Then gradually as the codes evolved, many companies teamed up with NGOs, trade unions, academia etc. to formulate common codes of conduct. Most general codes of conduct were developed with this multistakeholder approach. 2. 4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Classification of codes epending upon the standards they contain (all codes have similar requirements but differ in the definitions/design and some have also additional requirements e. g. waste management or anti-bribery policy); depending upon which organization or institution introduced the code and who controls the observance (companies, enterprise federations, trade unions, NGOs, management consultations or testing institutes); depending upon their members and their prevalence. Within these four categories subjects were identified as well as indicators to measure the implementation and coverage of the subjects. The indicators were selected according to the most common aspects of the general codes as well as the Bangladesh Labor Law. 2 Please refer to Annex I for a broad overview on the general codes of conduct. 4 A comparative analysis between the Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 and seven general codes of conduct Subjects of Codes of Conduct ILO Core Labor Standards Employment Conditions Occupational Health and safety
Saturday, September 14, 2019
A determination support tool chest for practicians on the local degreeCompiled by Juri Lienert, adapted from Moriarty et al 2007: The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools. Moriaty et al 2007: The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Background and Key Concepts. Executive Summary EMPOWERS is a regional plan chiefly funded by the European Commission Ã¢â¬Ës MEDA ( Mediterranean Regional Programme for Local Water Management ) Water Programme, working in Egypt, Jordan and West Bank and Gaza. The EMPOWERS Partnership aspiration is to better long-run entree and rights to H2O by vulnerable populations. It is making this through a participatory H2O planning and direction procedure with all stakeholders. The EMPOWERS attack aims to better H2O administration at the local degree of H2O users ( communities ) and at the intermediate degree of decentralized H2O directors and service suppliers in territories and governorates. The Guideline provided by EMPOWERS constitutes a practical and logical model of activities based on the engagement of those who use and manage H2O, which leads toward improved local H2O administration, and the development and execution of incorporate H2O development programs for towns, territories and small towns. Furthermore, the guideline advocate a coaction through duologue, to convey about a alteration in a manner that H2O direction professionals and H2O users work with each other ( Moriarty et al. 2007 ) .What is Water AdministrationIn peculiar, there has been a deficiency of practical tools and attacks to undertake H2O related jobs, particularly at the local and intermediate degrees where H2O service suppliers and H2O users interact. This is the challenge of H2O administration. At its simplest, H2O administration refers to the full set of systems that control determination doing with respect to H2O resource development and direction. In the linguistic communication of the Global Water Partnership ( GWP ) , H2O administration Ã¢â¬Å" relates to the scope of political, societal, economic and administrative systems that are in topographic point to develop and pull off H2O resources and the bringing of H2O services at different degrees of society Ã¢â¬ ( Rogers and Hall, 2003 ) . Apart from that, the apprehension of Water Governance of EMPOWERS particularly respects H2O related issues at the local degree. Thereby, EMPOWERS differs in their attack basically from a traditional apprehension of Water Management and Governance as a political matter.The EMPOWERS GuidelinesThe guidelines are divided into 5 chapters: Chapter 1 trades with improved H2O administration ( see above ) . It explains the operation of H2O administration and why it is of import to see local and intermediate H2O administration in the planning procedure. Furthermore the four chief properties of H2O administration are explained. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the attack of EMPOWERS, which was used to plan the guidelines. A model is provided to help the stakeholders to come to practical end products in the signifier of H2O development schemes, programs and activities and to improved communicating and determination devising. The attack is based on two pillars: the first is a procedure of stakeholder duologue and concerted action ( SDCA ) . Well informed stakeholders who communicate with each other on a regular footing will happen locally appropriate solutions to pressing H2O related jobs. Therefore the purpose is to beef up communicating and do stakeholder duologues more effectual. This can be realised through the designation of the cardinal stakeholders and whose engagement in a stakeholder platform. The 2nd pillar of the attack regards the direction rhythm itself, which contains of six stages, viz. visioning, measuring, strategising, planning, implementing and reflecting. The logic and sequencing of the rhyt hm aid to guarantee that determinations are based on a clear and logical flow of idea and action. Further inside informations of the direction rhythm can be seen in table 2. Chapter 3 trades with the debut to facilitation and capacity development. The development of capacity among stakeholders, in add-on to stakeholder duologue and the direction rhythm, is indispensable for the success of improved H2O administration. To procure a capacity development, stakeholders need to be advised in a first stage by a facilitation squad. The facilitation squad is in charge to maintain the stakeholders and their undertakings Ã¢â¬Å" on path Ã¢â¬ . The squad will be dwelling of experts with different backgrounds and accomplishments. Chapter 4 takes a closer expression to the direction rhythm, shown in table 2. The six stages are described in item and counsel for execution is provided, including a list of different tools and methods for each measure. In Chapter 5, these tools and methods can be found and explained in item. For every of the six stages recommended tools are presented, including aims of each stage, methods to make these aims and tipps and fast ones to ease the procedure. Applicability The focal point of the EMPOWERS attack is on participatory H2O administration at local ( community or small town ) and intermediate ( territory or governorate ) degree. The EMPOWERS Approach is chiefly used in the in-between E ; nevertheless construct can be applied in every state worldwide. The guideline of EMPOWERS has been tested within small towns and towns in Egypt, Jordan and Palestine with a population runing from a few 1000s to 30.00 dwellers. Yet it has non been tested in larger metropoliss or parts, nevertheless there is no ground that the attack would non be suited on a larger graduated table. The guideline is chiefly designed for usage in procedures of planning and duologue within and between local and intermediate degrees that is for undertakings affecting more than one small town or town. However, elements of the attack are appropriate for usage in stand-alone activities within a individual municipality. Advantages The attack focuses on the local and intermediate degree Ã¢â¬â in the field of incorporate H2O direction, such an attack of H2O administration can efficaciously associate up different degrees of H2O direction and can therefore near the spread of losing attacks for local and intermediate H2O direction. It is possible for little scale communities to be active in H2O direction. The attack addresses particularly stakeholders and their concerns to confront H2O related issues. A nucleus belief of the attack concerns the importance of cooperation and communicating at all degrees of involved stakeholders -this implies the coordination and cooperation of conjunct actions between communities, small towns, towns and governorates. The direction guidelines provide a really elaborate subdivision about methods and tools how to affect stakeholders and how to implement H2O direction programs. Single tools and methods can be used independently apart from a complete procedure of H2O administration sing all stages. Disadvantages The demand for a facilitation squad makes the procedure of H2O administration comparatively cost intensive. Due to the focal point on cooperation and stakeholder duologue, it can be hard to happen equal solutions with other stakeholder groups as a neighbour small town. Therefore actions should be approached on a larger graduated table than community degree. This leads to the demand of a higher fiscal capacity and a higher organizational demand.