Friday, September 6, 2019
History of Special Education Essay Example for Free
History of Special Education Essay It was not until the middle decades of the eighteenth century that Europe turned, for the first time, towards the education of persons with disabilities. The spirit of reform, crystallized in the philosophy and precepts of the European Enlightenment, created new vistas for disabled persons and the pioneers who ventured to teach them. Although special education emerged in a number of national contexts, France was the crucible where innovative pedagogies to assist those deaf, blind, and intellectually disabled emerged and flourished (Winzer, 1986). Following the French initiatives, movements to provide services for those in the normative categories of deaf, blind, and intellectually disabled were contemporaneous in continental Europe, Britain, and North America. Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, individual deviations were rarely tolerated and little was done for those who in some way disrupted the norms of a society. Disability was not an innocuous boundary; rather, it was a liability in social and economic participation. People perceived as disabled Ã¢â¬â whatever the type or degree Ã¢â¬â were lumped together under the broad categorization of idiot, scorned as inferior beings and deprived of rights and privileges. This early period is replete with innumerable stories of healing, many imbued with an Indeed, many special educators seem curiously disinterested in the foundations of the field; historical knowledge is learned incidentally and unintentionally (Mostert Crockett, 1999Ã¢â¬â2000; Winzer, 2004). To some, history becomes increasingly selective, with the past made over to suit present intentions; others speak to the Ã¢â¬Ëlack of historyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Renzaglia, Hutchins Lee, 1997, p. 361). At the same time, some contemporary writers disparage earlier events, programmes, and pioneers in favour of contemporary models. Some point to fossilized traditions; others hold that if todayÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusive movement embodies the best ideals of social justice then the past, by extension, had to be unjust (Winzer, 2004). Implicit to this position is a steadfast unwillingness to learn from the wisdom of the accumulated past. The middle decades of the eighteenth century witnessed the pervasive influence of the European Enlightenment. While the intellectual project of the Enlightenment was to build a sound body of knowledge about the world, its humanitarian philosophy prompted ideas about the equality of all people and the human responsibility to take care of others, particularly individuals outside the private circle of the home and the family. Reform movements sprang up, aimed at the improvement of the well-being of groups of individuals, varying from poor people and slaves to prisoners, the insane, and disabled people. In France, the Abbe Michel Charles de lÃ¢â¬â¢Epee (sign language) assimilated Enlightenment ideals of equality, as well as novel concepts about language and its development. He joined these to the sensationalist philosophy of John Locke and the French philosophers to promote innovative approaches to the education of deaf persons. If de lÃ¢â¬â¢EpeeÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine promoting a silent language of the hands was not unprecedented, it was nevertheless revolutionary in the context of the times. In devising and instructing through a language of signs, the Abbe gave notice that speech was no longer the apex of instruction in the education of deaf persons. Simultaneously, he influenced and guided innovations for other groups with disabilities, specifically those blind, deaf blind, and intellectually disabled. Following de lÃ¢â¬â¢EpeeÃ¢â¬â¢s successful mission with deaf students, Valentin Hauy in 1782 initiated the instruction of blind persons using a raised print method. Somewhat later, in 1810, Edouard Seguin devised pedagogy for those considered to be mentally retarded. The French educational initiatives travelled the Atlantic to be adopted by pioneer educators in US and Canada. Rejection of French innovations did not imply that British advances were minor. On the contrary. Building on the prerogatives of earlier pioneers, teachers and clergy such as Thomas Braidwood and John Townsend promoted education for deaf persons. Schemes to assist other groups soon followed. By the close of the eighteenth century in Europe and Britain, the instruction of disabled persons was no longer confined to isolated cases or regarded merely as a subject of philosophic curiosity. Permanent facilities were established, staffed by a cadre of teachers experimenting with novel and innovative pedagogical methods. The French endeavors formed the core of systems and methods adopted in the United States and much of British North America (Canada). In the latter, however, the Maritime provinces of Nova. Scotia and New Brunswick initially adopted British pedagogy (see Winzer, 1993). Founded on a humanitarian philosophy, evangelical commitment, and unbounded philanthropy, they established from 1817 onwards a complex of institutions designed to cater to the unique needs of exceptional individuals. Pedro Ponce de Leon(1578) in Spain created the first documented experience about education of deaf children (from nobility) AbbeCharles Michel de lÃ¢â¬â¢Epee(1760) in Paris created the Ã¢â¬Å"Institutpour sourdsÃ¢â¬ (Institute for deaf) Louis Braille invented Ã¢â¬Å"Braille scriptÃ¢â¬ (1829). Pioneers in Special Education Jean-Marc Itard [pic] DECS Order No. 1, s. 1997 Organization of A Regional SPED Unit and Designation of Regional Supervisor in-charge of Special Education -DECS Order No. 14, s. 1993 Regional Special Education Council -DECS Order No. 26, s. 1997 Institutionalizing of SPED Programs in All Schools -DECS Order No. 5, s. 1998 Reclassification of Regular Teacher and Principal Items to Special Education Teacher and Special School Principal Items DECS Order No. 11, s. 2000 Recognized Special Education (SPED) Centers in the Philippines. -REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7277 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE REHABILITATION, SELF DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-RELIANCE OF DISABLED PERSONS AND THEIR INTEGRATION INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF SOCIETY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES http://www. deped. gov. ph/default. asp SPED teachers to sharpen tools in a national conference PASIG CITY Teachers and school administrators handling children with special learning needs are expected to further hone their skills during the 2013 national conference on Special Education (SPED) being put together by the Department of Education (DepEd). Ã¢â¬Å"We are opening the conference to public and private school teachers and administrators and other SPED service providers in line with our policy to continue to create a culture of inclusive education,Ã¢â¬ said Education Secretary Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC. The conference aims to engage teachers and school administrators in the discussions of the evolving practices in handling SPED learners with the end-view of producing inclusive policies. Preparations are now underway for the conference to be held in November in Iloilo which carries the theme Ã¢â¬Å"Special Education: A Bridge to Inclusion. Ã¢â¬ One of the conference highlights is the awarding of prizes to the winners of the Search for the Most Outstanding Receiving Teachers, as well as Outstanding SPED Teachers and SPED Centers. The national finalists will be awarded certificates while the national winners will receive plaques of appreciation and cash prizes. The conference will also be a venue to discuss current trends, skills and practices on the management of inclusive education schools. Ã¢â¬Å"We can also expect presentations on researches on inclusive education which others may adopt or adapt,Ã¢â¬ added Luistro. The Philippines, as a signatory of the Salamanca Statement of Action on. Special Needs Education, recognizes the principle of equal educational opportunities for Ã¢â¬Å"all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditionsÃ¢â¬ (Salamanca Statement, 1994). This framework was adopted in the Philippines through the Department of Education Culture and Sports (now DepEd) Order no. 26 which institutionalized inclusive education. The order required the organization of at least one SPED center in each division and implementation of SPED programs in all school districts where there are students with special needs. Special education started in the Philippines in 1907 with the establishment of the Insular School for the Deaf and Blind. The school started with 92 deaf persons and one blind person. Today, DepEd serves 11 types of children with special needs in public schools. As of school year 2006-2007, there were 162,858 students with special needs at the elementary level, 51% or 83,231 of whom are in the gifted program. The remaining 49 % were students with various disabilities such as hearing impairment, visual impairment, learning disability, mental retardation, behavior problem, autism, and cerebral palsy. Students with learning disabilities comprise 25% of students with special needs. However, up to this date, many children with learning disabilities, mental retardation, and autism remain unidentified in public schools (DepEd, 2006a). The inclusion of children under these three categories of special cases were among the major concerns of the TEEP-SBM-Inclusive Education (IE) project. Historical Foundation of Inclusive Education Based on the book of Teresita G. Inciong, Yolanda S. Quijano, Yolanda T. Capulong, Julieta A. Gregorio, and Adelaida C. Jines entitled Introduction To Special Education, it was during the year of 1902 and under the American regime that the Filipino children with disabilities were given the chance to be educated. Mr. Fred Atkinson, General Superintendent of Education, proposed to the Secretary of Public Instruction that the children whom he found deaf and blind should be enrolled in school like any other ordinary children. However, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s special education program formally started on 1907. Mr. David Barrows, Director of Public Education, and Miss Delight Rice, an American educator, worked hard for this program to be possible. Mr. Barrows worked for the establishment of the Insular School for the Deaf and Blind in Manila and Miss Rice was the administrator and at the same time the teacher of that school. Today, the school for the Deaf is located at Harrison Street, Pasay City and the Philippine National School for the Blind is adjacent to it on Polo Road. During the year 1926, the Philippine Association for the Deaf (PAD) was composed of hearing impaired members and special education specialists. The following year (1927), the Welfareville ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Village in Mandaluyong, Rizal was established. In 1936, Mrs. Maria Villa Francisco was appointed as the first Filipino principal of the School for the Deaf and the Blind (SDB). In 1945, the National Orthopedic Hospital opened its School for Crippled Children (NOHSCC) for young patients who had to be hospitalized for long periods of time. In 1949, the Quezon City Science High School for gifted students was inaugurated and the Philippine Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled was organized. In 1950, PAD opened a school for children with hearing impairment.